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Public School Autonomy: A Comparative View of Education in England, Holland and Sweden. Miguel Ángel Sancho. European Foundation Society and Education e-mail: [email protected] Objetives of the Study.

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Public school autonomy a comparative view of education in england holland and sweden

Public School Autonomy: A Comparative View of Education in England, Holland and Sweden.

Miguel Ángel Sancho.

European Foundation Society and Education

e-mail: [email protected]

Fort- Lauderdale, Davie. Florida.3rd Annual International School Choice & Reform Academic Conference


Objetives of the study

Objetives of theStudy

A comparative study of certain public school models that have introduced a greater degree of autonomy in recent years.

That aims:

To analyze how they have achieved such great autonomy within public education systems.

To determine which similarities and differences exist within the countries that have progressed in its implementation.

To identify what level of evolution and acceptance they have had.


England s public school autonomy

England´s Public School Autonomy

Recent studies show that England´s public schools are some of the most autonomous (OECD, 2012).

England´s public school system combines independence of the school with public funding.

The English political system has always had both flexibility and strong civil society participation, which has given great weight to the importance of education.


England s public school system

England´s Public School System

The Labour Government under Tony Blair established academies in 2000 against strong opposition from the trade unions.

When the conservative liberal coalition came into power it gave schools greater autonomy and independence.

The Academies Act of 2010 expanded the academies and introduced the “Free School” program.

Abril 2011: 629 November 2013: 3,444


Public school autonomy a comparative view of education in england holland and sweden

Citation from the UK Legislation´s The Importance of Education: The White Papers 2010

  • “The Academy status should be the norm for all state schools, with schools enjoying direct funding and full independence from central and local bureaucracy. We will ensure that all schools, whatever their status, are freed from unnecessary bureaucracy, and enjoy progressively greater autonomy, with their own funding, ethos and culture. We expect schools to use their increased autonomy to explore new ways of working together – but collaboration in the future will be driven by school leaders and teachers – not bureaucrats.”


What is an academy

What is an academy?

England´s Public School Autonomy

Academies are schools that:

Are independent from the Local Authority (L.A.) which had the leading role in determining the way in which the school operated in the past.

Are publicly funded.

Have the power to determine the make up of its staff and the remuneration of its staff members.

Are able to select the curriculum, modifying it or specializing it.

Are able to modify the academic calendar for its students.

Manage their own budgets according to what best fits the needs of their students.


What is a free school

What is a Free School?

England´s Public School Autonomy

Free Schools are schools that:

Have been enabled by the Academies Bill, a new form of British Public Schools.

Are established by parents, churches, charities, teachers, or other independent volunteer groups. (Distinguishing free schools from academies).

Are independent from the Local Authority (L.A.) which has usually had the leading role in determining the way in which the school will operate, just like academies.

Can be similar to U.S. charter schools, where non-profit organizations can establish their own schools while receiving government funding.


Public school autonomy a comparative view of education in england holland and sweden

Levels of School Autonomy in England


Public school autonomy a comparative view of education in england holland and sweden

3rd Annual International School Choice & Reform Academic Conference

Organisation of instruction: student admissions; student careers; instruction time; choice of textbooks; choice of software/learningware; grouping of students; additional support for students; teaching methods; day‑to-day student assessment.

Personnel management: hiring and dismissal of principals, teaching and non-teaching staff; duties and conditions of service of staff; salary scales of staff; influence over the careers of staff.

Planning and structures: opening or closure of schools; creation or abolition of a grade level; design of programmes of study; selection of programmes of study taught in a particular school; choice of subjects taught in a particular school; definition of course content; setting of qualifying examinations for a certificate or diploma; accreditation (examination content, marking and administration).

Resource management: allocation and use of resources for teaching staff, non-teaching staff, capital and operating expenditure, professional development of principals and teachers.


Critiques of free schools and academies

Critiques of Free Schools and Academies

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They might contribute to greater social exclusion.

Most free schools exist within middleclass areas, creating a two-tier system.

Although prohibited, they can be selective with admissions, which can lead to an increase in social inequalities.

The risk of hiring unqualified teachers and staff members -Lack of supervision.

However, 75% of the 24 first free schools were rated “good or outstanding” by the Ofsted.

The majority of parents support free schools and their ability to choose .


Conclusions

Conclusions

We have observed a great increase in the autonomy of schools in England in the form of Academies and Free Schools.

With greater responsibility for meeting national objectives there is also an increase in societal involvement and participation.

More flexibility in their organization leads to more responsibility in their societies and communities.

The public and private profiles are not clearly distinguishable. The hierarchy and structures are unclear. It is often difficult to transfer education models to different educational environments.


Public school autonomy a comparative view of education in england holland and sweden

The Netherlands are often shown in international reports to have the greatest degree of autonomy in its schools (OCDE, 2012).


Netherland s school system

Netherland´sSchoolSystem

  • Schoolssupported by public funds:

    • State Schools: 1/3

    • Non-State Schools: 2/3

  • Municipality Public Education

  • Institutions Non-State Schools

  • Positive neutrality of the public school: They pay attention to the religion, philosophies, and beliefs most represented in the society.

  • Parents have the right to organize philosophy and religion lessons to be presented by the teachers. These courses are financed by the state.


The netherland s pedagogical autonomy

The Netherland´s Pedagogical Autonomy

It is the responsibility of the state:

  • To design the content of the fundamental curriculums and to determine the amount of time spent in the school.

  • To determine the educational objectives to have been met by the end of basic education and the first three years of the secondary education.

  • To establish an assessment of every school and have every student to complete an assessment at the end of their basic education and a national assessment at the end of their secondary education.

  • The schools have a limited capacity for time and educational resources to incorporate their own themes and specific projects into the curriculum.


Levels of netherland s school autonomy

Levels of Netherland´s School Autonomy

Source: OECD, 2012. (Elaboración propia)


School choice

School Choice

Parents have the right to select which school their child will attend. (If parents are unable to find a suitable school within the area where they live, they are able to apply for transportation funding from the council).

The ability to choose is facilitated by the government through its annual publication of the “Map of Quality.”

Schools are required to publish detailed information about there educational projects and plans.

The interests of parents are also represented on school boards.


Characteristics of the netherland s school system

Characteristics of The Netherland´s School System

The Dutch Educational System:

Is more decentralized and has given more autonomy to its schools, has reduced restrictions on the national curriculum, and has made teaching centers more autonomous.

Strengthened the ability for schools to determine their own management and implement their own innovative projects.

has given the school the power to decrease bureaucracy and regulations, for example ongoing negotiations between the government and representative organizations. These actions have led to Dutch schools themselves having the greatest power in enterprising and in decision making (FransJ. Vijlder, 2000).


Dutch government s approach

Dutch Government´s Approach

More attention must be paid to the quality of each school, making the schools more result-oriented.

The school directors and managers must be held responsible for meeting these results.

The Dutch Ministry of Education wants to establish a personalized curriculum for every student.

The schools are free to appropriate the government funds they receive in the manner they see as best suitable for their needs.

Greater freedom and flexibility greater accountability and involvement.


Greater school autonomy has i mproved schools performance internationally

GreaterSchoolAutonomy Has Improved Schools Performance Internationally.

To give greater flexibility and autonomy to the schools has allowed them to adapt programs to their needs and specific environment.

Holding the team of directors responsible for achieving the educational objectivesincreases social participation.


Sweden

Sweden

In 1990 only 0.9% of Swedish students attended independent schools.

In the 1992 Sweden passed in the Law of Reform of Independent Schools, with the objective of giving parents the right to choose between public or private schools.

Since 1992 Sweden has experienced a notable increase in independent schools.

Today in Sweden, 20% of children attending preschool go to independent preschools and 13% of pupils in compulsory schools go to independent schools. 25% of upper secondary school pupil attends an independent school.


Sweden s public school autonomy

Sweden´s Public School Autonomy

The independent schools are financed with public funding, based on the amount per student (voucher) equivalent which is assigned to their own public schools.

The school can also receive extra funding depending upon the needs of the students.

In turn the independent schools cannot charge the students money to attend.


Sweden s independent school authorization

Sweden´s Independent School Authorization

Two phases:

  • Firstly they must obtain permission in order to initiate the activities as an authorized school.

  • Secondly the Swedish Schools Inspectorate grants schools the right to obtain funds from the per pupil voucher system.

    • They must follow the national curriculum and they are evaluated by established national exams.

    • Within this general framework, independent schools have the freedom to organize their own programs and schedules.


Levels of control

Levels of Control

There are different authorization requirements and existing mechanisms of control.

There is the possibility to review the authorization.

Therefore in practice the possibility to promote private schools is more limited and the control of the school is carried out by the Swedish Schools Inspectorate and local authority.


Public school autonomy

PublicSchoolAutonomy

Organization and instruction:

The schooling criteria is set at a general national level, as well as more specific local level.

The same is true to the calendar and the hours designated for teaching different fundamental materials: There is a set general national level, then the municipalities and then the schools are able to adapt the content of the materials, the organization, and the methods of work.

Decision-making of School Personal:

The contracting of directors is based open the established national requirements.

The contracting and firing of teachers depends upon the established local authority and is in accordance with the trade unions.


Public school autonomy1

Public School Autonomy

  • Local Authority is able to:

    • Decide upon the creation or closing of public schools.

    • Determine whether the selected studies are in accordance to the national objectives.

  • The School is able to:

    • General school rules and policies.

    • The staff and teachers that make up the school.

  • The funding comes primarily from the municipalities and these in turn receive transfer funds from the central government and local taxes.

  • The decision to aid the professional development is made by both the local and central government.


Levels of autonomy

Levels of Autonomy


Evaluation of sweden s public school autonomy

Evaluation of Sweden´s Public School Autonomy

The autonomy is limited and gives more autonomy within the schools in the area of teaching style and less so in the areas of staff and curriculums.

For that reason there is a field of evolution in which the progressive weight of independent schools financed with public funds and their greater autonomy of staff members and curriculum allow them to exercise their influence in the public sphere.


Public school autonomy a comparative view of education in england holland and sweden

Pros

Photo by Liz MacKean of BBC News

The education centers are influenced by “competition” with this type of school that normally has given better results, which are stimulated in order to both better the organization and make teaching more innovative, and create active societal participants

The Flexibility that has been introduced into the system has allowed public schools to be turned into independantschools.

These independent schools, in turn, have been able to specialize as los long as that they are still meeting the national objectives.


Public school autonomy a comparative view of education in england holland and sweden

Pros

Public Opinion:

The Swedish people generally approve of the new system. About 10% of all students of compulsory school age now attend the new schools, and in the upper secondary level it is about 20%.


The dilema

The Dilema

  • The school choice reform has contributed to increased performance differences between schools, however this has led to decreased equity as well.

  • The school market is now considered to be an issue:

    • Although parents now have the increased possibility to decide which school is best for their child, only students whose parents making active decisions will benefit.

    • What happens to the students whose parents do not take an active role in their schooling?

    • Weakened preconditions necessary to provide each student with an equal education.


Conclusions1

Conclusions

The school system has undergone significant changes since the introduction of the school choice reform, but its consequences have not been analyzed as a whole.

The Agency believes that the government ought to analyze how the school choice system can be reconciled with increased equity, so that all schools develop into good schools (Agency 2013 report).


Overall levels of autonomy in netherlands england and sweden

Overall Levels of Autonomy in Netherlands, England, and Sweden

  • The Netherlands has the greatest level of school autonomy, followed by England.

  • England has no central or state involvement within its schools.

  • Netherlands has no local government involvement in its school.

  • Sweden represents a mixed involvement of the school, local, and central or state governments.

Source: OECD. Table D6. (www.oecd.org/edu/eag2012).


Public school autonomy a comparative view of education in england holland and sweden

Level of Autonomy in Netherlands, England, and Sweden, by Organization of Instruction

  • The Netherlands has complete school autonomy in this domain.

  • England and Sweden have equal levels of school autonomy and local government authority.

  • The central and state government does not have authority in organization of instruction.


Organization of instruction

Organization of Instruction

Table D6.7. Level of government at which different types of decisions about organization of instruction are taken in public lower secondary education (2011)

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Level of autonomy in netherlands england and sweden by personnel management

Level of Autonomy in Netherlands, England, and Sweden, by Personnel Management

Chart D6.3. Percentage of decisions taken at each level of government in public lower secondary education, by domain (2011)

  • Both the Netherlands and England have complete school autonomy in determining the school´s personnel management.

  • Sweden´s schools have nearly 60% autonomy in determining school´s personnel management. The rest of the authority in personnel management is allocated to the local government.

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Personal management

Personal Management

Table D6.7. Level of government at which different types of decisions about organization of instruction are taken in public lower secondary education, by personnel management (2011)


Level of autonomy in netherlands england and sweden by planning and structure

Level of Autonomy in Netherlands, England, and Sweden, by Planning and Structure

Chart D6.3. Percentage of decisions taken at each level of government in public lower secondary education, by domain (2011)

  • England´s schools hold the greatest autonomy in determining the planning and structure of the school at 60%.

  • The Netherland´s schools have nearly 45% autonomy in planning in structures. It´s central government has the majority of authority in this area.

  • Sweden´s schools do not have authority in this domain, giving most authority to the central government and some to the local.


Planning and structure

Planning and Structure


Level of autonomy in netherlands england and sweden by resource management

Level of Autonomy in Netherlands, England, and Sweden, by Resource Management

Chart D6.3. Percentage of decisions taken at each level of government in public lower secondary education, by domain (2011)

  • The Netherlands gives full autonomy to its schools in this domain.

  • England gives the majority of its authority to the school in determining resource management, and the remaining to the local government.

  • Sweden gives the majority of the authority to the local government and the remaining to the schools.


Resource management

Resource Management

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Conclusion

Conclusion

Greater school autonomy has improved schools internationally

To give greater flexibility and autonomy to the schools so that they adapt their programs to their needs and specific environment.

To hold the team of directors responsible for achieving the educational objectives.

The educational standards should follow the reference by the their own governments, as well as international organizations (OCDE, EU).

Both the OECD and the EU are setting a trend to value greater autonomy in schools relating it to the quality, provided that it is accompanied by accountability under reference standards.

Right balance between choice and equity.


References

REFERENCES

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Dutch Inspectorate of Education. (2012). The State of Education in the Netherlands (Highlights of the 2010/2011Education Report). Retrieved from http://www.onderwijsinspectie.nl/binaries/content/ assets/Actueel_publicaties/2012/the-state-of-education-in-the-netherlands-2010-2011.pdf

Parents back academies says blair. (2005, September 12). BBC News. Retrieved from http://news.bbc.co.uk /2/hi/uk_news/education/4236354.stm

Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development [OECD], (2012). Education at a Glance 2012: Retrieved from http://dx.doi.org710.1787/eag-2012-en

UK. Department for Education. (2013). What is an academy? Retrieved from http://www.educatio n.gov.uk/schools/leadership/typesofschools/academies/b00205692/whatisanacademy

Glenn, Ch. De Groof, J. (2002), Finding the right balance: Freedom, Autonomy and Accountability in Education, Utrecht, Lemma, 600 pp


Public school autonomy a comparative view of education in england holland and sweden

3rd Annual International School Choice & Reform Academic Conference

UK Department for Education. (2012). The governors´ guide to the law. Retrieved from http://www.merton. gov.uk/learning/schools/5._the_governors_guide_to_the_law-may_2012.pdf

UK. Department for Education. (2010). The importance of teaching: The schools white paper 2010.Retrieved from https://www.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/ attachment_data/file/175429/CM-7980.pdf

Vijlder, F., Dommelen, J., & Rizen, J. (1997). School choice in the netherlands. Economics of Education Review , 16(3), 329-335. Retrieved from http://www.academia.edu/1368380/School_finance_and _school_choice_in_the_Netherlands

Sellgren, K. (2013, January 10). Academies could 'fuel social segregation'. BBC News . Retrieved from http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/education-20960500

Sellgren, K. (2013, August 2). Three-quarters of free schools 'good or outstanding'. BBC News . Retrieved from http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/education-23515062


Public school autonomy a comparative view of education in england holland and sweden

3rd Annual International School Choice & Reform Academic Conference

The Netherlands

The Dutch Inspectorate of Education. (2012). The State of Education in the Netherlands (Highlights of the 2010/2011Education Report). Utrecht, The Netherlands: The Dutch Inspectorate of Education

< http://www.onderwijsinspectie.nl/binaries/content/assets/Actueel_publicaties/2012/the-state-of-education-in-the-netherlands-2010-2011.pdf>

OECD (2012), Public and Private Schools: How Management and Funding Relate to their Socio-economic Profile, OECD Publishing.

http://dx.doi.org/10.1787/9789264175006-en

The Education Council. (2012, 29 March). Article 23. Retrieved from http://www.onderwijsraad.nl/upload/english/publications/article-23.pdf


Public school autonomy a comparative view of education in england holland and sweden

3rd Annual International School Choice & Reform Academic Conference

Swedish National Agency for Education. (2012). Mapping the School Market: Synthesis of the Swedish National Agency for Education´s school market projects. (ISBN: 978-91-87115-89-9). Stockholm, Sweden: AB Typoform. Retrieved from http://www.skolverket.se/om-skolverket/andra-sprak-och-lattlast/in-english/publications

Swedish National Agency for Education. (2013). An assessment of the Situation in the Swedish School System 2013. (IBSN: 9789175590486). Stockholm, Sweden: ElandersSverige AB. Retrieved from http://www.skolverket.se/om-skolverket/andra-sprak-och-lattlast/in-english/publications


Public school autonomy a comparative view of education in england holland and sweden

3rd Annual International School Choice & Reform Academic Conference

Acts

Education Act 2002, Ch 32. London:<http://www.legislation.gov.uk/ukpga/2002/32/pdfs/ukpga_20020032_en.pdf>

Education Act 2011, Ch 21. London: < http://www.legislation.gov.uk/ukpga/2011/21/pdfs/ukpga_20110021_en.pdf >

Academies Act 2010, Ch32. London:

<http://www.legislation.gov.uk/ukpga/2010/32/pdfs/ukpga_20100032_en.pdf>

Learning and Skills Act 2000, Ch 21. London: <http://www.legislation.gov.uk/ukpga/2000/21/pdfs/ukpga_20000021_en.pdf>


Public school autonomy a comparative view of education in england holland and sweden

3rd Annual International School Choice & Reform Academic Conference


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