Why do Older Black Adults Reminisce?
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Why do Older Black Adults Reminisce? An Examination of Reminiscence Functions in a Sample of Older Black Adults. Juliette Shellman, Ph.D., APHN-BC Mukumbi Brown, BSN, RN, Deborah Stone, MS, RN & Karen Addison, LCSW University of Massachusetts Lowell. Acknowledgements.

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Juliette shellman ph d aphn bc mukumbi brown bsn rn deborah stone ms rn

Why do Older Black Adults Reminisce?An Examination of Reminiscence Functions in a Sample of Older Black Adults

Juliette Shellman, Ph.D., APHN-BC

Mukumbi Brown, BSN, RN, Deborah Stone, MS, RN

& Karen Addison, LCSW

University of Massachusetts Lowell


Acknowledgements

Acknowledgements

Shellman, J. (PI) Patterns and Functions of Reminiscence in Black Adults.

University of Massachusetts Lowell Advancing Research, Scholarship

and Creative Work (ARSCW)Seed Grant

STudents Advancing Reminiscence Research (STARR)

Deborah Stone, Mukumbi Brown, JenebaJabbi, Gloria Adgwze,

Jenna Connolly, Charly Darius, & Diane Furey


Specific aims

Specific Aims

1) Evaluate the reliability and validity of the Modified Reminiscence Function Scale in a sample of community-dwelling older Black adults.

2) Describe the patterns, and functions of reminiscence in a sample of community-dwelling older Blacks adults.


Reminiscence functions

Reminiscence Functions

  • Remembering past for a certain purpose

    Boredom reduction, conversation, death preparation, identity, intimacy maintenance, bitterness revival, problem solving, and teach-inform (Webster, 1993; 1997)

  • Reminiscence Functions Scale (RFS)

    (Robitaille et al., 2010; Webster, 1993;1997) .

    • 43 item, 8 factor scale

    • Subscale alpha scores ranges from .74-.87

  • Limits to generalizability

    • Testing completed on Caucasian, Canadian populations


Reminiscence functions1

Reminiscence Functions

  • Ethnicity and reminiscence functions in Black adults significant gap in reminiscence research.

  • Ethnicity identified as a moderator variable that may influence the occurrence, process, and outcomes of reminiscence.

    Webster, Bohlmeijer, & Westerhof (2010).

  • Pilot of Reminiscence Functions Scale with target population to test cultural acceptability and understandability (Shellman et al., 2009).


Reminiscence functions scale pilot

Reminiscence Functions Scale Pilot

  • Findings indicated the RFS was not culturally acceptable to the sample.

  • Participants had difficulty reading and understanding the directions.

  • Items containing statements such as

    “I reminisce when time is heavy on my hands”

    had no cultural relevance for the sample.

  • This led to a contextual examination of reminiscence functions in a sample of older Black adults.


A contextual examination of reminiscence functions in a sample of older black adults

A Contextual Examination of Reminiscence Functions in a Sample of Older Black Adults

  • Themes:

    • Something Like a Big Dictionary

      • Problem solving

    • Moving on

      • Avoid reminiscing for death preparation and to bring back bitter memories

    • Fellowship, Faith and family

      • Intimacy maintenance and conversation

      • Not for boredom reduction

    • Teach the young

      • Teach/inform

    • A Brand New Knowledge of Ourselves

      • Self-identity


Modified reminiscence functions scale

Modified Reminiscence Functions Scale

  • Washington (2009)

    • Pilot with RFS and Focus Group

    • Reading level

      • Cultural acceptability

      • Scoring and length of time needed to complete


Mrfs item response examples

MRFS Item Response Examples

1 never 5 very often

When I Reminisce it is to:

bring back bitter memories M=2.1, SD=1.1

prepare for death M=2.3, SD=.98

keep old hurts alive M=2.4, SD=1.2

understand myself better M=4.6, SD=.54

teach young people about cultural values M=3.6, SD=.76


Modified reminiscence functions scale washington 2009

Modified Reminiscence Functions Scale(Washington, 2009)

  • Alpha .94

  • Principal Component Analysis

  • 39 item, 7 factor scale

    • Self-regard

    • Death

    • Bitterness

    • Intimacy

    • Teach-inform

    • Boredom

    • Conversation


Methods

Methods

  • Descriptive study

  • Senior centers, churches in Northeast urban cities

  • Sample: English speaking blacks > 55 years of age.

  • Methodology: Survey Administration

  • Trained Black research assistants


Sample

Sample

(N=201)

  • Age 63.2 (SD=9.3)

  • Gender 58 % female

  • Ethnic group identified with:

    • 43.8% Black American

    • 22.1% African American

    • 14.1% African

    • 1% Haitian

    • 1% Negro


Reminiscence functions2

Reminiscence Functions

Overall scale alpha .94


Discussion

Discussion

  • First known study to examine reminiscence functions in older Black adults.

  • Previous research with Canadian, Caucasian populations ( Cappeliez & O’Rourke, 2002; 2006) show that this sample reminisces more frequently to teach and inform, intimacy maintenance, and self-regard.

  • Less frequently for bitterness revival, death preparation, and boredom reduction.


Model of reminiscence and health cappeliez o rourke 2006

Model of Reminiscence and HealthCappeliez & O’Rourke (2006)

Problem-

solving

Death prep

Identity

SELF-NEGATIVE

LS

Psych Distress

Perceived Health

Health Conditions

SELF-POSITIVE

Teach

PROSOCIAL

Converse

Bitterness

Boredom

Intimacy

Problem

Solve


Implications

Implications

  • Nursing Practice

    • Influence the way integrative reminiscence is facilitated for positive mental health and well-being.

  • Nursing Education

    • Programs for students to learn to facilitate reminiscence with older adults.


Future research

Future Research

  • CFA to examine underlying constructs of MRFS

  • Examine reminiscence functions across the life span.

  • Associations of reminiscence functions with

    mental health and well-being of older Black adults.

  • Peer led Reminiscence Intervention for Minority Elders (PRIME).


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