Early Childhood Intervention
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Early Childhood Intervention. Natalia Mufel , Education Specialist, UNICEF, New Delhi. Developmental delays.

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Early Childhood Intervention

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Early childhood intervention

Early Childhood Intervention

Natalia Mufel, Education Specialist,

UNICEF, New Delhi


Early childhood intervention

Developmental delays

z Child is assessed to have atypical behaviour or does notmeet expected normal development for actual oradjusted age in one or more of the following areas ofdevelopment: perceptual, fine or gross motor, social andemotional, adaptive, language and communication, orcognitive.

z A delay is measured by using validated developmentalassessments. Delays may be mild, moderate or severe.

z Caused by: poor birth outcomes, inadequate stimulationand nurturing care from birth onward, malnutrition,chronic ill health and other organic problems,psychological and familial situations, or otherenvironmental factors.


Early childhood intervention

Disabilities

z Child has a physical, health, sensory, psychological,

intellectual or mental health condition or impairment thatrestricts functioning in one or more areas, such asphysical movement, cognitive and sensory functions,self-care, memory, self-control, learning, or relating toothers.

z Many national and international typologies

(classifications) of disabilities exist that list impairmentsby type.


On the numbers

On the numbers

  • By one widely used estimate, some 93 million children – or 1 in 20 of those aged 14 or younger – live with a moderate or severe disability of some kind.

  • From 21% to 31% of young children in OECD countries are affected by developmental delays and disabilities.

  • They are derived from data of quality too varied and methods too inconsistent to be reliable. Definitions of disability differ by place and over time, as do study design, methodology and analysis.

  • No one really knows how many children have disabilities


Children with disability are invisible affecting resources and services available for them

Children with disability are invisible affecting resources and services available for them:

  • In comparison with high-income countries, fewer premature or very low birth weight infants survive in LAMI countries, and a larger proportion have significant developmental difficulties.

  • Children with disabilities and their families are too often invisible—in statistics, in policies, in societies. According to the World Disability Report, there are 25 percent people disabled in India . However, according to the data of Census 2001, India has only 2.1% i.e., about 20 million or 2 crore disabled people.


Early childhood intervention

One of the critical ways of ensuring children with disabilities can develop to their full potential is through health screening and early intervention.

  • Nearly, 6 percent of children in India are born with birth defects and 10 percent children are affected with developmental delays leading to disabilities. However, many children with developmental delays are not identified until the age of three or even primary school age, and by then their delays and learning disabilities have become permanent or are very difficult to reverse.

  • Child Health Screening and Early Intervention Services can reduce the extent of disability, improve quality of life and enable all children to achieve their full potential.

  • Inclusive health and education services have a critical role to play in building a solid foundation on which children with disabilities can build fulfilling lives.


Legal framework operational guidelines in india

Legal Framework/Operational Guidelines in India

  • India became seventh country to ratify the UN Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities.

  • Government enacted the Persons with Disabilities (Equal Opportunities, Protection of Rights and Full Participation) Act in 1995 providing equal opportunities for people with disabilities and their full participation in the nation building. The Government has also set up National Trust for Welfare of Persons with Autism, Cerebral Palsy, Mental Retardation and Multiple Disabilities in 2001 and a National Handicapped Finance and Development Corporation in 1997 to promote economic development activities, including self-employment programmes, for the benefit of persons with disabilities.

  • Right to Education mandates schools to become child-friendly, inclusive spaces where children from diverse backgrounds can actively participate in learning through child-centered activities.

  • In 2013, Government of India has launched the RashtriyaBalSwasthyaKaryakram (RBSK) aimed at screening over 270 million children from 0 to 18 years for 4 Ds - Defects at birth, Diseases, Deficiencies and Development Delays including Disabilities. Children diagnosed with illnesses shall receive follow up including surgeries at tertiary level, free of cost under NRHM. ECI should be established in collaboration with WCD and MHRD (School Health).


Early childhood intervention

UNICEF Guidance

zInthe early years, early detection and intervention, as well as family support come to thefore. Early intervention is critical and holds tremendouspotential for success. It requires high awareness amonghealth professionals, parents, teachers as well as otherprofessionals working with children. Family- andcommunity-based early intervention services should belinked with early learning programmes and pre-schools,which meet the needs of children with disabilities andfacilitate their smooth transition to school.

z


Early childhood intervention

Early Childhood Intervention(ECI)

z ECI programmes provide a system of early childhoodservices and support for:

z Vulnerable children at high risk for developmental delays orwith confirmed developmental delays or disabilities, and

z Their parents and families.

z The primary goal of ECI programmes is to supportparents in helping their children use theircompetencies to achieve their full developmentalpotential and attain expected levels of development, tothe extent possible.


Eci approach

ECI Approach

  • Child-centred services build on each child’s strengths and abilities, strive to meet the current and emerging needs of each child, provide individualised services.

  • Family-focused services help parents advocate for their child and family, ensure that parents are partners in assessments, service planning, and evaluating programme services, involve them in all services related to their child, are friendly, are sensitive to family cultural values and traditions.


Early childhood intervention

ECI Programmes usually include:

z Home visits and centre-based servicesz Parent education

z Balanced early stimulation and developmental servicesz Physical, language and occupational therapiesz Special education and inclusive servicesz Medical, nursing and nutritional servicesz Support services, including social work services,referrals and protective services, if required


Early childhood intervention

ECI services

z Serve infants and children, from birth to 3, and up to 5z Receive referrals from Health service

z Identify children early through home outreach, and

referrals from parents, polyclinics, and child care centresz Continuous referral and tracking systems arerequired: identification, screening and/or assessment,individualised family service plans (IFSP), services, casemanagement, referrals, tracking and follow-up

z Provide transition to inclusive/regular pre-schools andprimary schools or, if necessary, special facilities

z Collaborate closely with rehabilitation

hospitals for health/medical interventions, when needed


Early childhood intervention

ECI personnel include:

z Early Interventionists

z Special Pedagogues/Special Educatorsz Physical Therapists

z Language/Speech Therapistsz Audiologists

z Occupational Therapistsz Parent Educators

z Psychologists and Family Therapistsz Nurses

z Social Workers and Protective Services Personnelz Evaluators


Early childhood intervention

Continuum of early childhoodservices

Service

Most

Moderately

Least

intensity

intensive

intensive

intensive

Services

Types

ECI + parent

ECI/ECD +

ECD +

education

parent educ

parent educ

Child status

Level of risk

High risk of

Moderate

Low or no

delay

risk

risk

Degree of

Delayed or

Mild delay or

No delay or

delay/disab.

disabled

disability

disability

Malnutrition

Moderate to

Mild, making

Normal

severe

gains

nutrition

Health

Severely or

Improved,

Preventive &

status

chronically ill

but at risk

basic care


Early childhood intervention

Continuum of early childhoodservices (continued)

Most

Moderately

Least

intensive

intensive

intensive

Intensive,frequent

ServiceAssessment

Regular,Annualless frequent

aspects

Centre only,Groups only

LocationsHome visitsCentre,

& centrefewer visits

Frequency

Frequent,

Bi-weekly,

Upon

daily-weekly

monthly

request only

Duration

Continuous

Depends on

Upon

child status

request only

Specialists,Early Inter-ventionists

Service

SupervisedSupervised

providers

homeparent

visitorseducators


Early childhood intervention

Guidelines for establishing ECISystems

z ECI services represent far more than a neworganisational framework.

z They require profound changes in ways of thinkingabout:

z Children and how to maximise their potential;z Parental rights and empowerment; and

z Professional competencies and roles in supporting parents andchildren.


Early childhood intervention

Guidelines then present: main

activities, guidance and comments

z Strategic planning

z Initial design activities

z Programme organisation and inter-institutionalrelationships

z Training activities

z Programme implementation

z Programme evaluation and monitoringz Preparing a Plan of Action


Early childhood intervention

NIMH PROJECT TEAM 2001

Mrs. V.R.P. Sheilaja RaoPrincipal Investigator

 Dr. Jayanthi NarayanCo-Investigator

Mrs. Lakshmi RavindraResearch Officer

Ms. Rama CousikResearch Assistant

NATIONAL INSTITUTE FOR THE MENTALLY HANDICAPPED

(Government of India, Ministry of Social Justice & Empowerment)

Manovikas Nagar P.O.Secunderabad 500 009, A.P,India


Ecse curriculum transaction

ECSE Curriculum Transaction

Shift from Medical to Educational Model by engaging Multidisciplinary Team approach for Assessment, Programming & Evaluation

Initiate Parent Training Programs for parents of students attending ECSE prior to placement in Regular Pre Schools

Develop IEP & IFSP for School Readiness

To develop School Readiness schedule for individualised and group learning by selecting customised placement in regular and special school settings

Develop Transition Curriculum for shift from home to pre-school

Adaptations in core and non – academic curricular tasks


Early childhood intervention

Package Contents

  • 10 months curriculum, month - wise objectives and activities list with representative pictures.

  • Activities are divided into 5 teaching strategies with headings:

    - CONVERSATION (Green)

    - GAMES(Brown)

    - SONGS(Pink)

    - STORY(Blue)

    - CREATIVE ACTIVITY(Yellow)

1. CALENDAR


Early childhood intervention

2. ACTIVITY CARDS

Representative pictures, sequenced in steps to teach activities from the calendar. Each step is adapted to suite any disability condition with iconic representation in order to make cards more teacher friendly.

3. TEACHER’S MANUAL

Background details of various disability guidelines to use the training package and impart tips to be used in teaching strategies for the disabled in regular pre-schools.


Adapted ecse time table

Adapted ECSE Time Table

Out door

Games

Out door

Games

My Family

Rhyme

Vegetables

Fine motor

Creativity

Music

Indoor Games

Story

Body parts

Creativity

Sand play

Creativity

Music

Music

Out door

Games

Picture Reading

Vegetables

Fine motor

Gardening

Fine motor

Color concept

CAI

Indoor Games

Picture Reading

Body parts

Vegetables

Creativity

Fine motor

Rhyme

Water play

Out door

Games

Out door

Games

Color concept

Gardening

Fine motor

Music

Creativity

CAI

10.00 A.M. to 10.30 A.M. Prayer, Yoga and Physical Exercises Saturday and Sunday Holidays


Early childhood intervention

Thank you!


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