Early Childhood Intervention. Natalia Mufel , Education Specialist, UNICEF, New Delhi. Developmental delays.
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Early Childhood Intervention
Natalia Mufel, Education Specialist,
UNICEF, New Delhi
z Child is assessed to have atypical behaviour or does notmeet expected normal development for actual oradjusted age in one or more of the following areas ofdevelopment: perceptual, fine or gross motor, social andemotional, adaptive, language and communication, orcognitive.
z A delay is measured by using validated developmentalassessments. Delays may be mild, moderate or severe.
z Caused by: poor birth outcomes, inadequate stimulationand nurturing care from birth onward, malnutrition,chronic ill health and other organic problems,psychological and familial situations, or otherenvironmental factors.
z Child has a physical, health, sensory, psychological,
intellectual or mental health condition or impairment thatrestricts functioning in one or more areas, such asphysical movement, cognitive and sensory functions,self-care, memory, self-control, learning, or relating toothers.
z Many national and international typologies
(classifications) of disabilities exist that list impairmentsby type.
One of the critical ways of ensuring children with disabilities can develop to their full potential is through health screening and early intervention.
zInthe early years, early detection and intervention, as well as family support come to thefore. Early intervention is critical and holds tremendouspotential for success. It requires high awareness amonghealth professionals, parents, teachers as well as otherprofessionals working with children. Family- andcommunity-based early intervention services should belinked with early learning programmes and pre-schools,which meet the needs of children with disabilities andfacilitate their smooth transition to school.
Early Childhood Intervention(ECI)
z ECI programmes provide a system of early childhoodservices and support for:
z Vulnerable children at high risk for developmental delays orwith confirmed developmental delays or disabilities, and
z Their parents and families.
z The primary goal of ECI programmes is to supportparents in helping their children use theircompetencies to achieve their full developmentalpotential and attain expected levels of development, tothe extent possible.
ECI Programmes usually include:
z Home visits and centre-based servicesz Parent education
z Balanced early stimulation and developmental servicesz Physical, language and occupational therapiesz Special education and inclusive servicesz Medical, nursing and nutritional servicesz Support services, including social work services,referrals and protective services, if required
z Serve infants and children, from birth to 3, and up to 5z Receive referrals from Health service
z Identify children early through home outreach, and
referrals from parents, polyclinics, and child care centresz Continuous referral and tracking systems arerequired: identification, screening and/or assessment,individualised family service plans (IFSP), services, casemanagement, referrals, tracking and follow-up
z Provide transition to inclusive/regular pre-schools andprimary schools or, if necessary, special facilities
z Collaborate closely with rehabilitation
hospitals for health/medical interventions, when needed
ECI personnel include:
z Early Interventionists
z Special Pedagogues/Special Educatorsz Physical Therapists
z Language/Speech Therapistsz Audiologists
z Occupational Therapistsz Parent Educators
z Psychologists and Family Therapistsz Nurses
z Social Workers and Protective Services Personnelz Evaluators
Continuum of early childhoodservices
ECI + parent
Level of risk
High risk of
Low or no
Mild delay or
No delay or
but at risk
Continuum of early childhoodservices (continued)
Centre only,Groups only
& centrefewer visits
Guidelines for establishing ECISystems
z ECI services represent far more than a neworganisational framework.
z They require profound changes in ways of thinkingabout:
z Children and how to maximise their potential;z Parental rights and empowerment; and
z Professional competencies and roles in supporting parents andchildren.
Guidelines then present: main
activities, guidance and comments
z Strategic planning
z Initial design activities
z Programme organisation and inter-institutionalrelationships
z Training activities
z Programme implementation
z Programme evaluation and monitoringz Preparing a Plan of Action
NIMH PROJECT TEAM 2001
Mrs. V.R.P. Sheilaja RaoPrincipal Investigator
Dr. Jayanthi NarayanCo-Investigator
Mrs. Lakshmi RavindraResearch Officer
Ms. Rama CousikResearch Assistant
NATIONAL INSTITUTE FOR THE MENTALLY HANDICAPPED
(Government of India, Ministry of Social Justice & Empowerment)
Manovikas Nagar P.O.Secunderabad 500 009, A.P,India
Shift from Medical to Educational Model by engaging Multidisciplinary Team approach for Assessment, Programming & Evaluation
Initiate Parent Training Programs for parents of students attending ECSE prior to placement in Regular Pre Schools
Develop IEP & IFSP for School Readiness
To develop School Readiness schedule for individualised and group learning by selecting customised placement in regular and special school settings
Develop Transition Curriculum for shift from home to pre-school
Adaptations in core and non – academic curricular tasks
- CONVERSATION (Green)
- CREATIVE ACTIVITY(Yellow)
2. ACTIVITY CARDS
Representative pictures, sequenced in steps to teach activities from the calendar. Each step is adapted to suite any disability condition with iconic representation in order to make cards more teacher friendly.
3. TEACHER’S MANUAL
Background details of various disability guidelines to use the training package and impart tips to be used in teaching strategies for the disabled in regular pre-schools.
10.00 A.M. to 10.30 A.M. Prayer, Yoga and Physical Exercises Saturday and Sunday Holidays