Chpter 7 key issue 3 why do ethnicities clash
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Chpter 7 Key issue 3: Why do ethnicities clash?. By: Mohima Yeasmin. Ethnic Competition to dominate nationality. Sub-Sahara Africa is a region that is especially plagued by conflict It’s between different ethnic groups competing to become dominant within various countries

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Chpter 7 Key issue 3: Why do ethnicities clash?

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Chpter 7 key issue 3 why do ethnicities clash

Chpter 7 Key issue 3: Why do ethnicities clash?

By: Mohima Yeasmin


Ethnic competition to dominate nationality

Ethnic Competition to dominate nationality

  • Sub-Sahara Africa is a region that is especially plagued by conflict

  • It’s between different ethnic groups competing to become dominant within various countries

  • The horn of Africa and central Africa are two areas within Sub-Saharan Africa where conflicts between ethnic groups are harsh

  • Countries in the horn of Africa are Djibouti, Ethiopia, Eritrea and Somalia as well as Sudan


How does europe tie in

How does Europe tie in?

  • Europe used to be colonized in Africa and when they left the term “Nation State” didn’t really mean anything to them

  • When they left they did not divide Africa into nation states and that caused problems because there were different ethnicities living in the same country and that caused a battle for dominance between ethnic groups


Ethiopia and eritrea

Ethiopia and Eritrea

  • Was and Italian colony in 1890

  • Ethiopia, an independent country for more than 2,000 years was captured by Italy in the 1930’s

  • Ethiopia regained independence after world war II

  • The U.N. thought Ethiopia would give Eritrea authority to run it’s own affairs but Ethiopia dissolved the Eritrean legislature and Eritrea's major local language, Tigrinya

  • The Eritrean’s rebelled which led to a 30 year fight for independence (1961-1991)

  • During the war an estimated 665,000 Eritrean refugees fled to Sudan

  • In 1991 Eritrean rebels defeated the Ethiopian army

  • In 1993 Eritrea became and independent state

  • In 1998 war between Ethiopia and Eritrea flared up again because of argument over location and border

  • Ethiopia defeated Eritrea and took possession of the disputed areas

  • Ethiopia remained a complex multi-ethnic state from the late 19th century to the 1991’s Ethiopia was controlled by the Amharas who were Christians

  • After the gov. defeat in the early 1990’s power passed to a combo. of ethnic groups


Sudan

Sudan

  • Population= 40,000

  • The civil war was in the 1980’s between the black Christian rebels in the south and animist rebels and Arab-Muslim dominated government in the south

  • The black southerners are resisting what gov. attempts there are to convert the multi-ethnic society to one nationality tied to Muslim traditions

  • Lots of segregation between men and women

  • Where segregation can’t be put there are still laws/rules that separate the men from women

  • 5% of the population more than 2 million Sudanese were killed in the civil war

  • 1 million were forced to migrate from the south to the north or to Ethiopia

  • Sudan blames Eritrea, Ethiopia, and Uganda for helping the Christian animist rebels

  • Eritrea blames Sudan for undermining it’s gov.


Solmalia

Solmalia

  • Composed of Sunni Muslims and speak solmani

  • Solmani is a nation-state with national history and culture

  • 8 million inhabitants

  • 6 major ethnic groups(clans):

    • North

      Isaak

      Darod

      Dir

    • South

      Digil

      Hawiye

      Rahanwayn

  • Until 1991 a Darod sub clan known as Mahareen ruled Somalia nut in 1991 rebels dominated by a the Hawiye took control over southern Solmalia, Isaak clan gained control of much of the north

  • In the 1990’s Isaak clan declared the north as a separate state and adopted it’s own flag and currency called Somaliland

  • During the colonial period what the Isaak’s called Somaliland was ruled by the British while the rest of Somalia was an Italian colony

  • In 1992 3000,000 people mostly women and children died of famine from the warfare between the clans

  • The U.S. sent 7,000 troops to Somalia


Lebanon

Lebanon

  • Composed of 4 million people

  • Lebanon has been damaged by fighting among religious groups since the 1970’s

  • Maronite are Lebanon's most numerous Christian sect, accounting for 2/3 of the countries Christians

  • Greek Orthodox are 1/6 of the countries christians

  • The remaining 1/6 are Greek Orthodox, Armenian, Syrian, orthodox (Jacobites) and Chaldeans (Assyrian)

  • 60% are Muslim, 30% are Christian, 10% are other

  • 2/3 of Lebanon's Muslims belong to one of several shite sects

  • 1/3 = Sunni Muslims

  • Became independent in 1943

  • Civil war = 1975

  • Now most of Lebanon is controlled by Syria


Dividing ethnicities in south asia

Dividing Ethnicities in South Asia

  • When the British ended their colonial rule in the Indian sub-continent they divided the country into 2 irregularly shaped countries India and Pakistan (east and west)

  • Pakistan was two parts west Pakistan and east Pakistan which is not present day Bangladesh

  • It became Bangladesh in 1971

  • The separation boundaries were based on ethnicity

  • When east Pakistan wanted independece that led to a 9 month long war between the two countries but eventually east Pakistan won and became Bangladesh


Sri lanka

Sri Lanka

  • 20 million inhabitants

  • Has been torn by fighting between the Sinhalese and the Tamils

  • Sing the fighting began in 1983, 60,000 have died in the conflict between the two ethnicities

  • Sinhalese comprise 74%of Sri Lanka’s population

  • 300 year later the Sinhalese were converted to Buddhism and Sri Lanka became one of that religion's worlds centers

  • Sinhalese is an Indo-European language

  • Tamils are 18% of Sri Lanka’s population

  • Tamils are Hindus and the Tamil language in the Dravidin family is also spoken by 70 million people in India

  • The dispute between Sri Lanka’s two ethnicities extends back more tan 2,000 years

  • Since independence in 1948, Sinhalese have dominated the government military and most of the commerce

  • Tamils feel that they suffered discrimination at the hands of the Sinhalese dominated gov.


The kurds

The Kurds

  • And ex. of an ethnicity divided among several states the Kurds who live in the Caucasus south of the Armenians and Azeris

  • The Kurds are Sunni Muslims who speak a language in the Iranian group

  • The Kurds lived in an independent nation-state called Kurdistan during the 1920’s , but today 25 million Kurds are split among six countries

  • 15 million live in eastern Turkey

  • 5 million live in western Iran

  • 4 million live in northern Iraq

  • Smaller numbers in Armenia, Azerbaijan, and Syria

  • Basically when the borders were re-drawn the Kurds never were really granted their own country so now they live in various parts of the Caucasus region


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