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ONION DEHYDRATION WITH GEOTHERMAL ENERGY IN THE USA. John W. Lund Andrew Chiasson, Toni Boyd Geo-Heat Center Oregon Institute of Technology Klamath Falls, OR, USA. PROCESSING. Creoloe, Southport Globe and Hybrid Southport types used

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ONION DEHYDRATION WITH GEOTHERMAL ENERGY IN THE USA

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Onion dehydration with geothermal energy in the usa l.jpg

ONION DEHYDRATION WITH GEOTHERMAL ENERGY IN THE USA

John W. Lund

Andrew Chiasson, Toni Boyd

Geo-Heat Center

Oregon Institute of Technology

Klamath Falls, OR, USA


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PROCESSING

  • Creoloe, Southport Globe and Hybrid Southport types used

  • White in color and process a higher solid content which yields a more flavorful and pungent onion

  • Continuous belt conveyor used

  • Proctor & Schwartz dehydrator single line

  • Special silica gel – Bryair desiccation often used for the final drying

  • $1,500,000/yr in fuel used (180 days)

  • Geothermal saves 116 million cubic feet of NG


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Basic dehydration operation


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PROCESSING 2

  • Dehydration – basic steps

    • Harvesting

    • Transporting

    • Curing - 100oF heated air used – ease of peeling and processing – 48 to 72 hours

    • Washing and chlorinated to reduce bacteria

    • Slicing

    • Dehydration – in 3 to 4 stages – high air volumes

    • Milling (powdered, granulated, ground, minced, chopped or sliced)

    • Packaging


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AGRICULTURAL DRYING 1

  • Two large geothermal onion and garlic dehydrators are located in NW Nevada

  • These units can each process 5 - 7 tons of wet onions/hr – drying them from 83% to 4% moisture (output = 0.9 – 1.2 tons/hr dried product)

  • 0.15 therms/lb used = 500 million Btu/day or 76 billion Btu/yr (22 GWh) (150 days period)

  • Product used in soups, baked goods, salt, & seasoning as powders to slices


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AGRICULTURAL DRYING 2

  • Single-line, continuous-belt dryer use

    • 12.5 ft wide

    • 190 to 212 ft. long

    • 3 to 4 sections (A to D) –210 to 120oF

    • Processing 5 to 7 tons/hr of wet onions

    • Using 86,500 ft3/hr of air

    • 26 million Btu/hr

    • Onions 2 inches to 6 feet deep

    • Bryair desiccation unit required in final stage


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AGRICULTURAL DRYING 3

  • Brady’s Hot Spring plant – first in U.S. - 1978

    • 270oF geothermal fluid

    • Only has 3 stages (A thru C)

    • 6-months operation season - 65 employees

    • 25,000 tons of wet onions are processed during season – producing 5,000 tons of dry product

    • 190-ft. long dryer by 12.5 ft. wide

    • Uses 190 to 120oF air in various stages

    • Has also processed celery and carrots to extend season

    • Product trucked from S. California to S. Oregon (300 to 600 miles)


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AGRICULTURAL DRYING 4

  • Empire Foods plant – constructed 1994

  • Capacity

    • 37 tons/day onions; 42.5 tons/day garlic

    • 7 tons/yr (60% onions and 40% garlic)

  • 900 gpm of geothermal fluid @ 266oF

  • 45 million Btu/hr – discharge at 160oF

  • Cold storage warehouse allows year-round operation – 2nd line being considered

  • Geothermal energy also used for four ORMAT 1.5-MWe binary units – net output 3.6 MWe

  • Now shut down due to garlic imports from China


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Empire 6.0 MWe binary plants (3.6 MWe net)


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CONCLUSIONS 1

  • A survey in the U.S. found that of 108 industrial processes surveyed (representing 80% of U.S. industrial energy usage), 97% of all processes required heat input in the form of steam at 250oF or higher.

  • An examination of geothermal wells in 8 western U.S. states reveals that 99% are 250oF or less.

  • High load factor important (0.44 to 0.68 in 2000)

  • Wells above 250oF would normally be used for electric power generation, however ----

    * source: K. Rafferty, GHC Bulletin Vol. 24, No. 3 (Sept., 2003)


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CONCLUSION 2

  • Consider: Power plant vs dehydration plant

  • Assumptions

    • 300oF resource

    • 20 MW net binary power plant

    • US$0.07 per kWh power sales price

    • 10-month dehydration operation

    • 15,000 tons annual production (2 lines)

    • US$1.00/lb dried product wholesale price


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CONCLUSIONS 3

  • Power plant vs dehydration plant

    PowerDehydration

    plantplant

    Capital Expenditure$50 mill. $15 mill.

    Gross Revenue$11 mill. $30 mill.

    Resource require. 12,000 gpm 1,200 gpm

    Employees 15 75

    *source: D. Mendive,Geothermal Development Assoc., Reno, NV


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RESOURCE EVALUATION

  • Initial search of data base

    • Ontario, Lancaster, Vale, Nyssa , Harper and Adrain

    • 42 by 36 mile area

    • 9 springs

    • 270 wells identified

    • 68 to 239oF – high temp. at Vale

    • Most below 200oF

    • One “dry well” – 10,052 ft at 334oF - Ontario


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PROPOSED SCOPE OF WORK

  • Determine source and market of product

  • Estimate size of development

  • Determine temperature and flow rate needed

  • Review literature and determine resource available to meet requirements

  • Recommend site(s) for resource (well)

  • Perform economic analysis

  • Make recommendation(s)

  • Write final report


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THANK YOU


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