Speciation of the american cranberry vaccinium macrocarpon
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Brandon Schlautman. Speciation of the American Cranberry ( Vaccinium macrocarpon ). What is a species?. Domain- Eukarya Kingdom- Plantae Phylum- Magnoliophyta Class- Magnoliopsida Order- Ericales Family- Ericaceae Is a member of the heath family.

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Speciation of the american cranberry vaccinium macrocarpon

Brandon Schlautman

Speciation of the American Cranberry (Vacciniummacrocarpon)


What is a species
What is a species?

  • Domain- Eukarya

    • Kingdom- Plantae

      • Phylum- Magnoliophyta

        • Class- Magnoliopsida

          • Order- Ericales

            • Family- EricaceaeIs a member of the heath family.

              • Genus- VacciniumIs a member of the blueberry genus.

                • Species- VacciniummacrocarponAit.


Cranberry morphology adaptations
Cranberry Morphology/Adaptations

  • Small vining shrub, forms dense mats in bog areas


Cranberry morphology adaptations1
Cranberry Morphology/Adaptations

  • Extensive rhizomes, asexual reproduction

  • Self-incompatible

  • Flowers look like a crane’s head and neck


Cranberry morphology adaptations2
Cranberry Morphology/Adaptations

  • Yellow/red false berries

  • Fruits contain locules

  • Fruits are very hardy


Vaccinium phylogeny
Vaccinium Phylogeny

  • Phylogenetic tree- a branching diagram revealing the evolutionaryrelationships among various biological speciesbased upon similarities and differences in their physical and/or genetic characteristics.


Vaccinium genus some members
Vaccinium genus: some members

V. vitis-idaea

Lignonberry

V. angustifolium

Lowbush Blueberry

V. corymbosum

Highbush Blueberry

V. myrtillus

Bilberry

V. ovatum

Huckleberry

V. darrowii


Subgenus oxycoccos
Subgenus: Oxycoccos

  • Sect. Oxycoccus

  • Vacciniummacrocarpon – American Cranberry

  • Vacciniummicrocarpum – Small Cranberry

  • Vacciniumoxycoccos – Common Cranberry

  • Sect. Oxycoccoides

  • Vacciniumerythrocarpus – Southern Mountain

    • Cranberry

V. oxycoccos

V. macrocarpon

V. microcarpum

V. erythrocarpus


Vaccinium theory
Vaccinium theory


How does evolution fit in this picture
How does evolution fit in this picture?

  • Basic definition of evolution: A genetic change in a population over time.

  • Main objective: What evolutionary forces and/or types of selection were acting upon Vacciniumsubgenus oxycoccos which caused it to split (i.e. speciate) into three or more distinct species?

  • Further objective: Are there really three species, and should the oxycoccos subgenus exist?


Speciation a lineage splitting event that produces two or more separate species
Speciation- a lineage-splitting event that produces two or more separate species

  • Allopatric Speciation- Speciation occurring in an alternate location

    • Geographic barriers to reproduction

  • Sympatric Speciation- Speciation occurring in same location

    • Barriers to reproduction in same geographic area

      • Ex) chromosome duplication/polyploidy


  • Selection s role in speciation
    Selection’s Role in Speciation

    • Natural Selection- gradual random process which causes biological traits to become more or less common in a population

      • Survival of the fittest

    • Artificial Selection- Human mediated selection, agriculture


    Oxycoccus geographic distribution
    Oxycoccus Geographic Distribution

    V. macrocarpon

    V. oxycoccus 4N

    V. oxycoccus 2N

    V. microcarpum

    V. erythrocarpus


    Following speciation genetic fingerprints
    Following Speciation: Genetic Fingerprints

    • Microsatellites (SSRs)- Short Sequence Repeats

      • Ex) 5’-AGAGAGAGAGAGAGAGAGAGAGAGAGAGAG-3’

        vs. 5’-AGAGAGAGAGAGAGAGAGAGAGAGAG-3’

    • By tracking changes in genetic sequences (SSRs), we can follow the genetic change in populations overtime (i.e. Evolution!)


    Chloroplast data example
    Chloroplast Data Example

    Why Chloroplast DNA

    Maternally inherited –only one copy per plant (i.e. every plant is a homozygote)

    Small size-110,000 bp vs. 550,000,000bp nuclear genome

    Minimal variation


    Revised vaccinium genetic theory
    Revised Vaccinium Genetic Theory


    Gentic theory and distribution
    Gentic Theory and Distribution

    V.erythrocarpus- Likely Allopatric Speciation- isolated in Appalacian Mountains

    V. Oxycoccus 4N- Sympatric Speciation- Reproductive barrier due to polyploidy

    V. Oxycoccus 2N- Allopatric Speciaion – geographic isolation

    V. Macrocarpon 2N- Allopatric Speciation – geographic isolation


    Current vaccinium theory based on morphology alone
    Current Vaccinium Theory based onMorphology alone


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