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RESEARCH ETHICS: AN INTRODUCTION. DR.DAWNETTE CIGRAND COUNSELOR EDUCATION WINONA STATE UNIVERSITY. WITH THE STICKY NOTES PROVIDED FOR YOU WRITE DOWN SHORT PHRASES TO DESCRIBE YOUR RESEARCH ETHICAL PRINCIPLE. POST THEM AROUND THE ROOM WITH OTHER SIMILAR IDEAS

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Research ethics an introduction

RESEARCH ETHICS: AN INTRODUCTION

DR.DAWNETTE CIGRAND

COUNSELOR EDUCATION

WINONA STATE UNIVERSITY


Activity

  • WITH THE STICKY NOTES PROVIDED FOR YOU

    • WRITE DOWN SHORT PHRASES TO DESCRIBE YOUR RESEARCH ETHICAL PRINCIPLE.

    • POST THEM AROUND THE ROOM WITH OTHER SIMILAR IDEAS

    • WHEN YOURS ARE POSTED, BE SEATED.

ACTIVITY

  • ACTIVITY


The prima facie principles

Autonomy—the right to self-determination of choice and freedom from the control of others.

The necessary conditions for autonomy are voluntariness, competence, and full disclosure of information.

The Prima Facie Principles

Cottone & Tarvydas (2007)


The prima facie principles1

Beneficence and freedom from the control of others.Nonmaleficence are closely related and represent difference aspects of the same concept.

Beneficence—involves a more active concept of contributing to the well-being of other

Nonmaleficence—involves being passive or refraining from taking some action that might harm another.

The Prima Facie Principles

Cottone & Tarvydas (2007)


The prima facie principles2

Justice—involves fairness and equality in access to resources and treatment.

Counselors are obligated to assure that their processes, agencies, and services do not discriminate—this is a matter of justice.

Fidelity—involves promise keeping, keeping commitments, and honesty and loyalty.

Trust is crucial to the counseling relationship and is the cornerstone of fidelity.

The Prima Facie Principles

Cottone & Tarvydas (2007)


THE NUREMBERG CODE WAS CREATED AFTER AMERICAN PROSECUTERS CONFRONTED NAZI PHYSICIANS AT THE “DOCTOR TRIALS” IN NUREMBURG, GERMANY, FOR CRIMES AGAINST HUMANITY IN WORLD WAR II.

THE NUREMBURG CODE IS AN ETHICAL CODE, WHICH HAS LED TO LEGISLATION, DETERMINING FEDERAL LAW THAT GOVERNS HUMAN SUBJECTS RESEARCH.


TODAY’S ETHICAL RESEARCH PRINCIPLES AND LAWS ARE GUIDED BY THE NUREMBERG CODE.

HOWEVER, SCIENTIFIC ADVANCES SUCH AS ORGAN TRANSPLANTATION, GENETIC CLONING, AND STEM CELL RESEARCH HAVE NECESSITATED CHANGE IN OUR RESEARCH PRINCIPLES AND PRACTICES.



2 the experiment should be such as to yield fruitful results for the good of society
2. essential. The experiment should be such as to yield fruitful results for the good of society. 


OH $%*@! essential. 

3. The experiment should be so designed and based on the results of animal experimentation and a knowledge of the natural history of the disease.


4. The experiment should be so conducted as to avoid all unnecessary physical and mental suffering and injury.


5 unnecessary physical and mental suffering and injury.. No experiment should be conducted where there is an a priori reason to believe that death or disabling injury will occur.THE END DOES NOT JUSTIFY THE MEANS.


Victim of a unnecessary physical and mental suffering and injury.medical experiment immersed in freezing water at the Dachau concentration camp.Dachau, Germany, between August 1942 and May 1943.

(Yad Vashem- photo).

6. The degree of risk to be taken should never exceed that determined by the humanitarian importance of the problem to be solved by the experiment.


7. unnecessary physical and mental suffering and injury.Proper preparations should be made and adequate facilities provided to protect the experimental subject against even remote possibilities of injury, disability, or death.


8 the experiment should be conducted only by scientifically qualified persons
8 unnecessary physical and mental suffering and injury.. The experiment should be conducted only by scientifically qualified persons.


9. During the course of the experiment the human subject should be at liberty to bring the experiment to an end.


10. During the course of the experiment the scientist in charge must be prepared to terminate the experiment at any stage, if he has probable cause to believe, in the exercise of good faith, superior skill and careful judgment required of him that a continuation of the experiment is likely to result in injury, disability, or death to the experimental subject.

  • HOW DID YOU DO?


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