Ordering in time a new routing approach for wireless networks
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Ordering in Time: A New Routing Approach for Wireless Networks. Stephen Dabideen and J.J. Garcia-Luna-Aceves Department of Computer Engineering University of California, Santa Cruz. MASS 2010. Outline. Introduction Related Work TORP(Time-Based Ordering for On-Demand Loop-Free Routing)

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Ordering in Time: A New Routing Approach for Wireless Networks

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Ordering in time a new routing approach for wireless networks

Ordering in Time:A New Routing Approach for Wireless Networks

Stephen Dabideen and J.J. Garcia-Luna-Aceves

Department of Computer Engineering

University of California, Santa Cruz

MASS 2010


Outline

Outline

  • Introduction

  • Related Work

  • TORP(Time-Based Ordering for On-Demand Loop-Free Routing)

  • Performance

  • Conclusion


Introduction

Introduction

  • Many routing approaches have been proposed for routing in wireless networks over the past 40 years

  • Most has focused on the ordering of nodes with respect to destinations using spatial information, such as

    • Distances to destinations,

    • Absolute location of nodes,

    • Relative location with respect to special nodes

  • While shortest path routing works well in wired networks, it is not very efficient in wireless networks especially in the face of mobility.


Related work

Related Work

[18] C. E. Perkins and E. Royer. Ad hoc on-demand distance vector routing.

In Proceedings of the 2nd IEEE Workshop on Mobile Computing Systems

and Applications, pages 90–100, February 1999.

[17] C. E. Perkins and P. Bhagwat. Highly dynamic destination-sequenced

distance-vector routing (dsdv) for mobile computers. In Proceedings

SIGCOMM ’94, pages 234–244, August 1994.

  • Spatial ordering

    • AODV [18] , DSDV [17]

D

  • Link quality

  • Distance

  • Network congestion

A

B

C

  • Multiple paths

  • Delivery ratio

S


Related work1

Related Work

[6] D. D. Couto, D. Aguayo, J. Bicket, and R. Morris. A high-throughput

path metric for multi-hop wireless routing. Proc. MobiCom, 2003.

  • Spatial ordering

    • ETX [6]

Hop count =0

D

Hop count =1

Hop count =1

Hop count =1

A

B

C

Heavy load and low mobility.

S

Hop count =2


Related work2

Related Work

[10] B. Karp and H. Kung. Greedy perimeter stateless routing for wireless

networks. Proceedings of the Sixth Annual ACM/IEEE International

Conference on Mobile Computing and Networking, pages 243–254,

August 2000.

  • Spatial ordering

    • GPSR [10]

D

Hop count =1

Hop count =1

A

B

C

S

Local minima

Knowing the position of the destination beforehand remains a critical assumption


The temporal ordering routing

The Temporal Ordering Routing

  • We advocate the use of a temporal ordering as an alternative to the spatial orderings used in most routing protocols.

  • We propose the use of ordering of nodes based on time rather than space

    • Without the need to establish any clock synchronization among nodes.


Ordering in time a new routing approach for wireless networks

TORP

  • Time-Based Ordering for On-Demand Loop-Free Routing

    • Route Request Phase

    • Route Replay Phase

RREP

D

A

B

RREQ

S


Ordering in time a new routing approach for wireless networks

TORP

  • Route Request Phase

Definition 1: Node A is a successor of Node B on a path to destination C

ifor if A is the destination.

RA

RB

TA

TB

A

B

RREQ

is the local time node B received a RREQ from 𝐴

is the local time at which node 𝐵 retransmitted the RREQ.

as an upper bound on the transmission and propagation delay


Ordering in time a new routing approach for wireless networks

TORP

Definition 1: Node A is a successor of Node B on a path to destination C

ifor if A is the destination.

  • Route Request Phase

RB

TD

RA

D

RS

RA

TB

RD

RS

TA

RB

RD

A

B

RREQ

TS

RA

RB

S


Ordering in time a new routing approach for wireless networks

TORP

Definition 2: The Reply Acceptance Condition (RAC): A node can only accept

and process a RREP if it is received from a successor, as defined in Definition 1.

  • Route Replay Phase

RREP

D

D

B

A

B

C

RREQ

A

B

S


Ordering in time a new routing approach for wireless networks

TORP

  • Route Maintenance

    • When a link fails, a node can route data through any of its neighbors as long as they are successors

    • As long as the destination is receiving packets, it periodically initiates proactive updates

D

A

B

S


Ordering in time a new routing approach for wireless networks

TORP

  • Adjustable Ordering and Mobility in TORP

    • Nodes attempt to adjust the ordering of their neighbors so that they have almost equal number of successors and predecessors.

    • This is done by adjusting the time at which they retransmit RREQs.

A


Ordering in time a new routing approach for wireless networks

TORP

  • The advantages of time-based temporal ordering over spatial ordering in the design of routing protocols, such as

    • Allowing more paths,

    • Factoring in network conditions implicitly,

    • To be efficient under heavy load and high mobility.


Performance

Performance


Performance1

Performance


Performance2

Performance

  • The simulations were performed using the Qualnet 4.5 network simulator.


Performance3

Performance


Conclusion

Conclusion

  • We introduced the Time Ordered Routing Protocol (TORP) as an example of the potential of this new type of ordering

  • We have described the inherent advantages of temporal ordering over spatial ordering in the design of routing protocols

  • We showed that it performs better than the traditional approaches based on spatial ordering.


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