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Integration problems in high functioning autism. Dorit Ben Shalom, Zlotowski Centre for Neuroscience, Ben Gurion University of the Negev. An under researched problem By informal estimate, only 10% of people with high functioning ASD have the severe form

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Integration problems in high functioning autism

Dorit Ben Shalom, Zlotowski Centre for Neuroscience, Ben Gurion University of the Negev


An under researched problem

By informal estimate, only 10% of people with high functioning ASD have the severe form

Researchers have no idea what to look for



The medial prefrontal cortex and is known about the less severe forms

integration in autism

Ben Shalom, 2009

Ben Shalom, D. (2009). "The Medial Prefrontal Cortex and Integration in Autism."

Neuroscientist:


Logical processing is known about the less severe forms

Level 3

Conscious

Integration

Level 2

Pre-conscious

Animal processing

Level 1

Unconscious


Emotion is known about the less severe forms

the theory of mind hypothesis

(Baron-Cohen et al., 1985, Frith & Happe,

1994)

Baron-Cohen, S., A. M. Leslie, et al. (1985). "Does the autistic child have a "theory of mind" ?"

Cognition

21

(1): 37-46.

Frith, U. (1994). "Autism and theory of mind in everyday life."

Social Development

3

(2): 108-124.


emotion is known about the less severe forms

Autistic

Neurotypical

spectrum

Conscious

disorder

logical

Level 3

processing of

emotions

Pre-conscious

Level 2

integration of

emotional

states

The animal

Level 1

level of

emotion


Emotion is known about the less severe forms


Memory is known about the less severe forms

episodic (Bowler et al., 2000)

or ‘complex’ memory atypicalities

(Minshew and Williams, 2007)

Bowler, D. M., J. M. Gardiner, et al. (2000). "Episodic Memory and Remembering in Adults with Asperger

Syndrome."

Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders

30

(4): 295-304

Minshew, N. J. and D. L. Williams (2007). "The new neurobiology of autism: cortex, connectivity, and neuronal

organization."

Archives of neurology

64

(7): 945-950.


Memory is known about the less severe forms


Perception is known about the less severe forms

the weak coherence hypothesis (Frith,

1989, Happe & Frith, 2006) (emphasis on

atypical top down processing)

the enhanced perceptual functioning

hypothesis (Mottron et al., 2006)

(emphasis on enhanced bottom up

processing)


Perception is known about the less severe forms


Motor is known about the less severe forms

dyspraxia (difficulty in planning complex

movements) is more general in ASD, going

beyond imitation (mostofsky et al., 2006)


motor is known about the less severe forms

Autistic

Neurotypical

spectrum

Conscious

disorder

logical

Level 3

processing of

emotions

Pre-conscious

Level 2

integration of

motor actions

The animal

Level 1

level of

motor

behavior


Motor is known about the less severe forms


motor is known about the less severe forms

emotion

memory

perception


JS (Smith, 2006) is known about the less severe forms

“I have a hard time localizing pain [. . .]. I have a very hard time explaining where aches are located when my doctors ask”


Unrelated JS (Ben Shalom, Faran, & Boucher, 2010) is known about the less severe forms

who after 4 repetitions of 8 word pairs with phonological interference knew only 2


Donna Williams (Williams, 2003) is known about the less severe forms

“When I was 7 I got a doll's house [. . .]. I picked it up [. . .] in my mouth [. . .]. I later moved onto the series of flattened white blocks [. . .] before stacking them in piles according to size. [. . .] I saw no doll's house”


Ido Kedar (Kedar, 2010) is known about the less severe forms

“It was my good fortune that I was able to learn to communicate on letter board or computer with my one finger. Thanks to that, my education is possible”


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