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A Challenge to Civil Liberties. Early 1942—”enemy aliens” were required to register with the gov’t Germans, Italians, and Japanese aliens were subject to arrest or deportation 11,000 German and Italian immigrants held in camps By mid-1942 fears surrounding Germans and Italians subsided

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A Challenge to Civil Liberties

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A Challenge to Civil Liberties

  • Early 1942—”enemy aliens” were required to register with the gov’t

  • Germans, Italians, and Japanese aliens were subject to arrest or deportation

  • 11,000 German and Italian immigrants held in camps

  • By mid-1942 fears surrounding Germans and Italians subsided

  • Not so for the Japanese


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Animosity towards the Japanese

  • About 127,000 Japanese-Americans lived in the U.S.most living in California

  • On February 19th 1942 Roosevelt signed Executive Order 9066.

  • Under the terms of the Order, some 120,000 people of Japanese descent living in the US were removed from their homes and placed in “relocation centers”.

    • Had to sell their property and kept only the necessary items


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Executive Order 9066


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Internment of Japanese-Americans


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The Fifth Amendment

  • No person shall be held to answer for a capital crime unless on a presentment of a Grand Jury, except in cases… or in the Militia, when in actual service in time of War or public danger…

  • How could FDR have justified Executive Order 9066 in regards to the Fifth Amendment?


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  • In 1943 all internees over the age of seventeen were given a loyalty test. They were asked two questions:

    • 1. Are you willing to serve in the armed forces of the United States on combat duty wherever ordered? (Females were asked if they were willing to volunteer for the Army Nurse Corps or Women's Army Corps.)

    • 2. Will you swear unqualified allegiance to the United States of America and faithfully defend the United States from any or all attack by foreign or domestic forces and forswear any form of allegiance or obedience to the Japanese emperor, to any other foreign government, power or organization?


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  • Korematsu v. United States (1944)—Sup. Crt upheld FDR’s wartime internment policy

    • 1988 U.S. gov’t offered apology and $20,000 payments to surviving internees

  • In December 1944 Public Proclamation number 21, which became effective in January 1945, allowed internees to return to their homes.


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http://historymatters.gmu.edu/d/5154

  • Executive Order 9066


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