The research enterprise in psychology
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The Research Enterprise in Psychology. Chapter 2. The Scientific Method. [Packet] Scientific Approach C.N. What does an experiment in Psychology look like?. Key PointsNotes. Summary:. The Assumption. There are laws of behavior that can be discovered through empirical research!

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The research enterprise in psychology

The Research Enterprise in Psychology

Chapter 2


The scientific method

The Scientific Method


Packet scientific approach c n what does an experiment in psychology look like

[Packet] Scientific Approach C.N.What does an experiment in Psychology look like?

  • Key PointsNotes

Summary:


The assumption

The Assumption

There are laws of behavior that can be discovered through empirical research!

The Goals

  • Measurement and Description of Behavior

  • Understanding and Prediction of Behavior

  • Application and Control of Behavior


Measurement and description of behavior

Measurement and Description of Behavior

  • Set up a way to measure the phenomenon under study by creating variables, or measurable conditions events, characteristics, or behaviors.

  • Create operational definitions, which define big concepts in terms of overt behavior

  • Based on these definitions and measurement system you are prepared describe the behavior.

    Example: Are men or women more sociable? To measure, define your variables. Then come up with operational definitions for sociability such as

  • # minutes spent talking to others in one hour

  • Proximity in feet and inches to others while talking

  • # Smiles and incidents of laughter while talking

Next slide


Measurement and description of behavior variables and groups vocab

Measurement and Description of Behavior: Variables and Groups Vocab

  • Independent Variable: the variable you’re manipulating; the variable that signifies the difference between the control and experimental groups.

  • Dependent Variable: the variable you’re measuring

  • Experimental Group: the group you’re testing using the independent variable.

  • Control Group: the status quo group; not exposed to independent variable.

  • Operational Definitions: measurable definitions of variable(s) in terms of observable behaviors.


Understanding and prediction of behavior a higher level goal

Understanding and Prediction of Behavior: A Higher-Level Goal

  • Make predictions, or hypotheses, which are tentative statements about the relationship between two or more variables.

  • Carry out the experiment and gather data.

  • Understand causes of behavior and relationships between variables based on accuracy of predictions.

    Example: My hypothesis is that women exhibit overall greater sociable behavior than men. Operational definitions

  • # minutes spent talking to others in one hour

  • Proximity in feet and inches to others while talking

  • # Smiles and incidents of laughter while talking

    Result: Women spent more time talking to others, were closer to each other in proximity, and smiled and laughed more than men. Therefore, women are more sociable than men. Is this a reasonable conclusion based on my variables?


The research enterprise in psychology

Application and Control of Behavior: Highest Goal

Application and Control of Behavior: The Highest Goal

  • Use conclusions to help people solve everyday problems by developing theories, or systems of interrelated ideas used to explain a set of observations.

  • Example: Gottman hypothesized that women’s exhibition of greater sociability causes miscommunications between husbands and wives. Sometimes when husbands are listening to their wives they do not exhibit the social cues that their wives associate with social behavior, such as proximity and spending large quantities of time communicating. Therefore, wives often conclude that their husbands are not listening to them. How could this theory help people in their marriages?

In the last decade or so, science has discovered a tremendous amount about the role emotions play in our lives. Researchers have found that even more than I.Q., your emotional awareness and abilities to handle feelings will determine your success and happiness in all walks of life, including family relationships. -John Gottman


The research enterprise in psychology

[Packet] Design Your Own Study

Directions: You will design a hypothetical study on a psychological questions that interests you. You DO NOT have to carry out the study.Flowchart in Scientific Investigation

Question: Do adults or teens tend to overreact more frequently?

Hypothesis: Overreactions are more prevalent among teens.

1-Formulate a question and a hypothesis

#2- Design the study (include variables and groups)

#3- How would you collect the data (include operational definitions)

Indep.Variable: Age

Dep. Variable: Strength and frequency of overreaction

CG: 12 males, 13 females. Adults only. Expose this group to such provoking stimuli as (1) take away phones, (2) initiate human rights discussion, (3) initiate gossip chain, (4) introduce “loud mouth” into room

EG: 12 males, 13 females. Teens only. Expose this group to such provoking stimuli as (1) take away phones, (2) initiate human rights discussion, (3) initiate gossip chain, (4) introduce “loud mouth” into room

Experimental setting will have couches, tables w/activities, and electronics. Data will be taken from experimenters observing through two-way mirror

Operational definitions:

Age: teen= 11-18 years old, adult=25-50 years old

Overreaction:

  • Voice volume (at least 95 decibels)

  • Hand gestures (breadth in inches, tenseness)

  • Extreme emotional response (screaming, tears, or self-pity)


Quiz on variables

Quiz on Variables:

  • Hypothesis: Men express their romantic affection more physically than women.

  • Group A= Mixed group of couples. Men given instructions to woo their girlfriends/wives.

  • Group B= Mixed group of couples. Women given instructions to woo their boyfriends/husbands.

  • Procedure: Each group has access to chocolates, cards, flowers, construction paper, etc. and are given access to a private setting. The real observation comes when these gifts are delivered. If men accompany their delivery of gifts with kisses and touch, my hypothesis is correct.

  • What are the dependent and independent variables?


Quiz on variables etc

Quiz on Variables, Etc.

  • Hypothesis: Kids whose parents read to them when they’re little earn better grades throughout high school and are more motivated to achieve professional success.

  • Group A= Teens who were read to as kids.

  • Group B= Teens who were not read to as kids.

  • Procedure: Give each group of teens a survey regarding their GPA, attitudes about school, and professional goals. If Group A, surveys contain higher marks than Group B’s, my hypothesis was correct.

  • What are the dependent and independent variables?


Quiz on variables etc1

Quiz on Variables, Etc.

  • Hypothesis: Artistic ability is more inherited than it is learned.

  • Group A= People who believe they have artistic ability whose non-live-in close relatives have artistic ability.

  • Group B= People who believe they have artistic ability whose non-live-in close relatives do not have artistic ability.

  • Procedure: Give each group an art project to complete in a specified amount of time. If Group A’s project is of a higher quality than Group B, my hypothesis is correct.

  • What are the dependent and independent variables?


Packet multiple methods of research

[Packet] Multiple Methods of Research

  • 1. Read through pgs. 41-53 for about 15 minutes. Practice focused reading skills! When finished, you may move into a group (max 3).

  • 2. Write these down with 4-5 spaces between them:

    • Experiment (already familiar with this one!),

    • naturalistic observation,

    • case study,

    • survey

  • 3. Complete the following vocab. and analysis activity:

    • A. Define each of the above methods of research,

    • B. Give a complete example of each, and

    • C. List at least one advantage and one disadvantage for each.


  • Apply your research methods

    Apply Your Research Methods!

    • Group 1: Discuss an experiment you could do on a topic related to psychology. Choose two people to present it to the class.

    • Group 2: Discuss a naturalistic observation you could do on a topic related to psychology. Choose two people to present it to the class.

    • Group 3: Discuss a case study you could do on a topic related to psychology. Choose two people to present it to the class.

    • Group 4: Discuss a survey you could do on a topic related to psychology. Choose two people to present it to the class.


    Packet statistical jeopardy

    [Packet] Statistical Jeopardy

    • Following are a list of answers. Write them down. Then create a question that corresponds to each answer. Pgs. 53-57 will help you. 1 has been done for you.

    • 1. These are used to organize and summarize data collected in psychological studies. What are statistics?

    • 2. This is more commonly known as “the average.”

    • 3. In a linear distribution of scores, this score would repeat the most often.

    • 4. In a linear distribution of scores, this score is found in the middle.

    • 5. This word describes a relationship between two variables.

    • 6. The numerical differences in data points from each other and from the mean are summed up in this name.

    • 7. Tooth brushing and tooth decay would have this kind of correlation (+ or -).

    • 8. Tooth brushing and tooth health would have this kind of correlation (+ or -).

    • 9. Grades and IQ would seem to be related with a + or – correlation above this number. Hint: What’s the number?

    • 10. Profound giftedness and earning potential would seem to be unrelated with a + or – correlation below this number. Hint: What’s the number?

    • 11. A correlation of -0.9 would mean that cramming and high test scores are related in this way (address both the number and the sign).

    • 12. A correlation of +0.9 would mean that studying the night before a test and high test scores are related in this way (address both the number and the sign).


    Quote discussion

    Quote Discussion

    • Read the blocked quotes on pg. 63 by Neal Miller (one italicized in 2nd column and one a caption).

    • Discuss them with someone. Decide whether you agree or disagree with them and give reasons.


    The research enterprise in psychology

    (Packet) Opinion Notes: How have animals been used in psychological experiments? Are these experiments justified? Why or why not?

    Opinion

    • Notes

    Summary:


    Oh rats

    Oh Rats!

    • The Situation: Rats are very social, intelligent animals, and much rat research has been generalized to humans over the decades. Rat research has aided in everything from brain surgery to intelligence research to unraveling the mystery of sleep!

    • The Controversy: Especially in medically-related psychological experiments, rats have been injured and killed.

    • Examples:

    • REM sleep experiments

    • Biological psychology experiments using lesion and electrodes.


    Pigeons rats with wings

    Pigeons: Rats with Wings

    • The Situation: Pigeons can be trained easily, as evidenced by their centuries-old use as messenger birds. Many behavior and learning experiments have been carried out on pigeons to improve human understanding of how certain stimuli illicit specific responses. Many pigeons, so they’re disposable.

    • The Controversy: Pigeons are kept in cages for their entire lives and often “get out of shape.” They lose body mass and are not allowed to fly. Furthermore, researchers often drive them to the point of insanity by alternately reinforcing behaviors with the one thing pigeons care about (food) and taking away that reinforcement as an independent variable. They are also used for neurosurgical experiments

    • Examples:

    • B.F. Skinner’s famous food pellet experiments

    • Pigeons trained to fly missiles (Skinner, WWII):

      could Pigeons can learn to peck a visual target on

      a screen in order to receive food.

    • 1824 M.J. Pierre Flourens observed that the removal of the cerebellum led to loss of coordination and the destruction of the semicircular canals caused the pigeon to have abnormal eye movements, turn its body in the direction of the lesion, and lose its equilibrium.


    Ow doggies

    Ow’ Doggies!

    • The Situation: Dogs are accessible and plentiful. They also exhibit some of the same qualities as humans, such as attachment, loyalty, and self-sacrifice. They can be trained fairly quickly, vary greatly in intelligence depending on their breed, and have short generation gaps. Psychologists and other researchers have used dogs to gather research on conditioning, social psychology, and even evolution.

    • The Controversy: Dogs are often kept in kennels and studied in large numbers. Imagine having a population of 50 dogs in one building. A great deal of work would have to be put forth to care for all of them humanely.

    • Examples:

    • Ivan Pavlov’s classical conditioning experiments

      1903- “The Experimental Psychology and

      Psychopathology of Animals”

    • Russian geneticist Dimitri Belyaev’s experiment:

      changing foxes into dogs in the 50’s by breeding strategically

      and controlling their environment.

    “Thirty-five generations . . .

    The tame foxes not only behaved like domestic dogs, they looked like them. . . Their tails turned up at the end like a dog’s, rather than down like a fox’s brush. The females came on heat every six months . . . instead of every year like a vixen. According to Belyaev, they even sounded like dogs.”


    Monkey business

    Monkey Business

    • The Situation: Genetically, monkeys are nearly identical to humans. Therefore, primate research can be easily generalized to humans. Many psychological experiments have been conducted on monkeys in an attempt to figure out the sociability and physiology of our own species.

    • The Controversy: Monkeys are social and intelligent, like people, so isolating them from their natural social structures and their natural habitats is stressful and confusing to them. Furthermore, because humans and monkeys are so similar, the ethical question of experimentation is even greater. Why not experiment on humans?

    • Examples:

    • Harlow attachment experiments between

      infant and mother rhesuses in1950s

    • Koko language experiment 1970’s:

      1,000 signs based on ASL,and

      understands 2,000 words of spoken

      English

    • Corpse extraction incident

    "The behavior of these monkeys as mothers -- the 'motherless mothers' as Harlow called them -- proved to be very inadequate ... These mothers tended to be either indifferent or abusive toward their babies. The indifferent mothers did not nurse, comfort, or protect their young, but they did not harm them. The abusive mothers violently bit or otherwise injured their infants, to the point that many of them died."

    “Frown cry-frown sad.”

    -Koko


    Dolphins elephants and bird brains

    Dolphins, Elephants, and Bird Brains

    • The Situation: Dolphins, elephants, and parrots are super-intelligent and super-social. Not only can they be trained easily, but for years, psychologists have used these animals to conduct experiments on identity. It turns out that individual identity and even self-esteem are not just human traits. Sorry, Humanists!

    • The Controversy: In order to be studied, these animals must be locked up. Because of high human interest in circuses and aquariums, and movies like Dumbo and Free Willy, elephants and marine animals have been the center of hot debate. Animal rights activists have also spoken out against the importation of exotic birds. There are many ironies to this controversy on both sides.

    • Examples:

    • The dolphin-mirror experiment

    • Elephant social psychology on a recovering African preserve

    • Parrot cognition in National Geographic.


    For your summary

    For Your Summary

    • Summarize both the pro and the con side of the animal research question.

    • You may use a t-chart or some other graphic organizer.

    • Discuss at least five points. (2 pro, 3 con or 3 pro, 2 con)


    Packet apa ethical guidelines

    [Packet] APA Ethical Guidelines

    • Read the APA guidelines on pg. 64 and summarize each one in your spiral in own words.

    • Reflection: According to these guidelines, would animal research be ethical in your opinion? Why or why not? (Paragraph)

    • When you’re finished, do the practice test on pg. 73 and finish any vocabulary for C.2.


    Critical thinking application pg 70 71

    Critical Thinking Application (pg. 70-71)

    • Read pgs. 70-71 aloud with another person.

    • In a discussion, list 5 main ideas from your reading connected to anecdotal evidence and explain them briefly.

    • Think about and discuss this question: During the article readings and the animal research presentation, did you pay more attention to anecdotal evidence or did you use evidence-based decision making to make your opinions?

    Logos

    Pathos

    vs.


    Packet considering evidence

    [Packet] Considering Evidence:

    • You will see two different kinds of evidence on the following six slides. You will view each slide of 2-3 minutes. Discuss it with someone sitting near you. At the end of the activity, you will have to answer the following question in a paragraph:

    • Is it okay to consider anecdotal evidence when you’re trying to make a decision? Why or why not?


    Animal research anecdotes and facts

    Animal Research: Anecdotes and Facts

    Anecdotal Evidence

    The true stories we hear say . . .

    • Baby monkeys are taken away from their mothers at birth for various experiments, and some are even killed.

    • Captive dolphins live their entire lives in aquariums and are deprived of their natural habitat.

    • Dogs live in confined spaces and in great numbers in research kennels.

    Statistics and Facts

    The facts and stats that often don’t show up in stories say . . .

    • Stat: Harshest estimates say that out of over 1, 000 monkeys, 98 died as a part of research in 2003-2004 (“Inside the Monkey House”).

    • Fact: Dolphins form bonds with the humans who train and play with them. There’s even a team of marine biologists who are seeking “rights for dolphins as non-human persons.” (The Telegraph).

    • Stat: A dog or a cat is euthanized (“put down”) every 11 seconds in the United States. There are too many to care for. (http://www.humanesociety.org)

    Which of these columns is more emotional?


    Inside the monkey house 2004

    “Inside the Monkey House”2004

    • Most of the center's colony -- 1,048 animals -- are rhesus macaques, a highly developed species that has about 95% of DNA in common with humans.

    • Of these rhesus monkeys, 300 are used for breeding, and 500 for research. This includes 60 used for AIDS research and 50 in studies involving caloric restriction and aging. Another 300 rhesus, mostly juveniles, remain unassigned.

    • During the 2003-2004 research year, which ended April 30, Kemnitz says his center recorded 239 monkey deaths. Most were due to old age or illness, but 98 animals were killed as part of research, often to obtain tissue samples. "The great majority of these," asserts Kemnitz, "entailed deliberate administration of anesthesia -- they were put to sleep."


    Monkey house anecdotal evidence can either make it sound really good or really bad

    Monkey House . . . Anecdotal evidence can either make it sound really good, or really bad.

    Favorable

    Unfavorable

    Research is done on rhesus monkeys, a kind of primate that is strikingly similar to humans.

    A number of these monkeys are used for AIDS research.

    Nearly a seventh of the monkeys in the Monkey House die every year.

    • Research is done on rhesus monkeys, a kind of primate that is distinctly subhuman.

    • Many monkeys are used for breeding, while the majority remain unassigned to any specific research category.

    • A minority of the monkeys in the Monkey House pass away every year, and most due to natural processes.


    The research enterprise in psychology

    Wolf: “Way back in Once Upon a Time time, I was making a birthday cake for my dear old granny. I had a terrible sneezing cold. I ran out of sugar. So I walked down the street to ask my neighbor for a cup of sugar. Now this neighbor was a pig. And he wasn't too bright either. He had built his whole house out of straw. Can you believe it? I mean who in his right mind would build a house of straw? So of course the minute I knocked on the door, it fell right in. I didn't want to just walk into someone else's house. So I called, "Little Pig, Little Pig, are you in?" No answer. I was just about to go home without the cup of sugar for my dear old granny's birthday cake.

    That's when my nose started to itch. I felt a sneeze coming on. Well I huffed. And I snuffed. And I sneezed a great sneeze.

    And you know what? The whole darn straw house fell down. And right in the middle of the pile of straw was the First Little Pig - dead as a doornail. He had been home the whole time. It seemed like a shame to leave a perfectly good ham dinner lying there in the straw. So I ate it up.”

    • The true story of the 3 little pigs, Jon Scieszka; Lane Smith Publisher: New York, N.Y., U.S.A. : Viking Kestrel, 1989.


    The research enterprise in psychology

    • So, anecdotal evidence plays on people’s emotions, but can stats and facts . . . mislead?

    • YES! Depending on what you think “misleading” means.

    • Check out this example from a Washington Times editorial on unemployment from 2010. Read the article and pay attention to some of the challenges, both practical and ethical, that statisticians face:

    • http://goo.gl/BL0lQe

    • *http://www.washingtontimes.com/news/2010/feb/9/fudging-unemployment-statistics/

    • Note: Editorials are opinions, so they are rarely bi-partisan. This kind of statistical “fudging” takes place on both sides of the political aisle.


    Other sources of anecdotal evidence

    Other Sources of Anecdotal Evidence

    • Movies

    • T.V. shows

    • Books

    • News reports

    • News commentary shows

    • Radio shows

    • Family

    • Political Speeches/Functions


    Spiral considering evidence

    (Spiral) Considering Evidence:

    • Answer the following question in a paragraph:

    • Is it okay to consider anecdotal evidence when you’re trying to make a decision? Why or why not?


    Connection to anecdotal evidence

    Connection to Anecdotal Evidence

    • Write a “connection” explaining how you or someone you know has been swayed by anecdotal evidence! Use detail!

      Example: When I was three, one of my favorite stories was Curious George. My brother would often sit in on the stories. Soon thereafter, my brother began asking my parents for a pet monkey. For every gift-giving holiday, he always had the same request: “Can I have a monkey?” This begging continued for years. Finally, my parents told him that they would think about it if he researched the topic and found out what was required to care for a monkey. He researched for weeks. Soon, he discovered that taking care of a monkey was a full time job and that, ultimately, monkeys don’t go on fun adventures with men in yellow hats. For his next birthday, he asked for spelunking equipment instead! The facts of

      monkey care finally defeated the romance of anecdote.


    Conference teaser

    Conference Teaser

    Make a one-sheet advertisement for a psychological conference you’re going to give on animal research. Your audience is professors and students. Choose either the pro side or the con side of animal research. On your teaser include the following:

    • A question to catch the reader’s attention.

    • An illustration with color and advertising appeal

    • An indication of the kind of animal research you’re for or against (e.g. pigeons locked in cages, rat’s brains being lesioned, isolating animal babies from their mothers, etc.)

    • 3 reasons to support either a pro or a con argument

    • Time and place

    • A professional tone

    • A final product worthy of 20-30 minutes of class time.


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