injuries and first aid
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PAGES 760-763 768-769. Injuries and First Aid. **Wear protective gloves** If a minor cut, wash with water…for major injuries with heavy bleeding, skip to next step. Direct pressure Elevate Roller bandage If bleeding through, add more bandage Pressure points

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controlling bleeding

**Wear protective gloves**

  • If a minor cut, wash with water…for majorinjuries with heavy bleeding, skip to next step.
  • Direct pressure
  • Elevate
  • Roller bandage
  • If bleeding through, add more bandage
  • Pressure points
    • Brachial/Femoral Arteries
Controlling Bleeding

1st Degree – Top layer of skin is red and dry.

Treatment – put under cold water for 10 minutes.

Do not use ice


2nd Degree – Destroys multiple skin layers, red blotchy skin, blistersform, pain and swelling

Treatment – cold water (not ice) and elevate. Wrap loosely with dry dressing and get medical attention.


3rd Degree – critical burn destroying skin and possibly fat, muscle, nerves and bone.

Skin looks gray or charred black

Treatment – call 911. Cold water (not ice). Wrap loosely with dry dressing


Signs of choking:

    • Universal sign
    • Pale skin followed by turning blue
    • High pitched whistle sound
    • Inability to speak
what is it

Melanoma:  The most dangerous form of skin cancer (that is highly curable when detected in its earliest stages & treated).  Of the 1 million new cases of skin cancer that will be diagnosed this year in the US, approximately 88,000 will be melanoma.  It can occur on any skin surface!   It begins in the type of skin cell called a melanocyte.  As part of the tanning process, these skin cells produce large amounts of skin pigment or melanin, to help protect the skin from burning.  The main cause of melanoma appears to be related to excessive UV (ultra-violet)  radiation exposure.

What is it?

moles what is normal

Moles have sharply defined borders

Can be flat or raised

If raised, they are raised evenly

**Watch for changes in appearance**

MolesWhat is normal?
c color

Mole changes color to shades of tan, brown or black

  • Colors are not uniform across the entire mole
C = Color
d diameter

Any sudden or continuing increase in size

Mole is larger than 6mm (size of a pencil eraser)

D = Diameter
e elevation

Mole was flat – becomes elevated or new mole appears – growing vertically

    • Could be a sign of a more serious form of melanoma
Surgery to remove (excise) melanoma removes the cancer and a border of healthy tissue.

The inner circle represents the melanoma and healthy tissue that are excised

The eye shaped incision is often done to neatly close the surgical site.

who is at risk
Who Is at Risk?

Personal or family history of blemishes 

(dysplastic nevi or melanoma)

Faircomplexion,redhair, freckling

Severe childhood sunburn.

Protecting skin during the first 18 years of life reduces the risk of 

some types of skin cancer by up to 78%!!

Large pigmented skin blemishes  (congenital nevi)

sun facts
Sun Facts

You can get a sunburn even on a cloudy day! 

Up to 80% of the sun’s rays can penetrate light clouds, mist, and fog.

Snow reflects the sun like a mirror. 

Fresh snow reflects nearly 90% of the sun’s rays.

You can burn while you’re in the water! 

Water reflects 80% of the sun’s radiation.

Dry surfaces reflect some of the sun’s rays. 

Concrete reflects up to 85% of the sun’s rays.

Just one sunburn can increase your

chance of developing skin cancer by 50%!

protect your skin

Protect yourself during any outdoor activity with a sunscreen that has an SPF of at least 15.Sun’s peak hours are 10am- 4pm. Apply sunscreen 15-30 minutes before going outdoors to allow penetration into the skin. Reapply after 2 hours. 

Protect Your Skin

tanning beds

People 35 or younger who used the beds regularly had a melanoma risk eight times higher than people who never used tanning beds. Even occasional use among that age group almost tripled the chances of developing melanoma.

(American Cancer Society)

Tanning Beds?