Warmup 5 minutes
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Warmup : 5 minutes. Draw these structures: 3-hexene3,4 dimethyl-1 pentyne. Biochemistry: Basic Biochemical Compounds Carbohydrates Nucleic Acids and DNA Amino Acids, Proteins, and Enzymes Lipids *sorry guys…lots of writing today .

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Warmup : 5 minutes

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Warmup 5 minutes

Warmup: 5 minutes

Draw these structures:

3-hexene3,4 dimethyl-1 pentyne


Warmup 5 minutes

Biochemistry:

Basic Biochemical Compounds

  • Carbohydrates

  • Nucleic Acids and DNA

  • Amino Acids, Proteins, and Enzymes

  • Lipids

    *sorry guys…lots of writing today 


Warmup 5 minutes

2. Which best highlights the main difference between carbohydrates and proteins?

a. Carbohydrates are organic and proteins are inorganic

b. Proteins are polymers and carbohydrates are monomers

c. Proteins are monomers and carbohydrates are polymers

d. Proteins are made of amino acids and carbohydrates are made of sugars

Write down and try to answer the following questions: (there will be 4)

1. The DNA in our genes codes for:

a. amino acid sequences for many proteins

b. base pair sequences for lipid storage

c. carbohydrate sequences

d. none of the above


Warmup 5 minutes

4. What do all amino acids have in common?

a. they are all inorganic

b. they contain an amine group and a carboxyl group

c. they are all present in the structure of RNA

d. they all have the same R chain, allowing them to form bonds with one another

3. Which pair of substances includes two lipids?

a. steroids, sucrose

b. sucrase, detergent

c. detergent, steroids

d. oil, valine

e. wax, sucrase


Carbohydrates sugars

Carbohydrates (“sugars”)

  • The key to metabolism (the break down of food into sugar for energy).

  • Names end in –ose.

  • Monosaccharides: single monomer of carbon, hydrogen and oxygen in a 1:2:1 ratio

  • Polysaccharides: linked monomers; found in starches and cellulose


Warmup 5 minutes

sucrase

Cellulose is basically the same as starch, but the alpha linkage here is beta in cellulose (diagonal-ish). Cellulose can’t be digested because we lack the enzyme to break beta linkages between sugar

monomers.

Enzymes lower activation energy needed for reaction to happen

Ex. sucrase aids the hydrolysis of sucrose into glucose and fructose


Proteins

Proteins

  • Folded strands made of amino acids linked together through peptide bonds. They gain their function from the way they fold.

  • 20 different types of amino acids (letters combine to make numerous sequences (words). AA’sstrongly influence how proteins fold depending on their polarity and hydrophobic regions

  • Amino acids have a repeating structure (one amine group, one carboxylic acid group, one hydrogen atom) with a variable side chain (R).


Amino acids

Amino Acids

  • R groups range from a simple hydrogen side chain to complicated chains like tryptophan.

  • In the cell ribosomes, amino acids are combined together (based on the RNA sequence) to make protein sequences

  • two H’s of the amine group and one O of the carboxylic acid group make H2O. A peptide bond forms !!!


Nucleic acids

Nucleic Acids

  • polymers that serve as a blueprint for proteins

  • two types: Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) and Ribonucleic Acid (RNA).

  • backbone is made of sugar and phosphates

  • nucleotides (monomers) from one strand pair up with monomers from the other strand


Warmup 5 minutes

  • four nitrogenous bases: adenine, guanine, cytosine and thymine.

  • each base can only pair with one other base via hydrogen bonding: A with T, C with G

  • allows the DNA to replicate with few errors


Lipids

  • large, structurally diverse group of naturally occurring organic compounds

  • soluble in nonpolar organic solvents (ex. ether, chloroform, acetone, benzene)

  • insoluble in water

Lipids

Fats and Oils: “triglycerides”

-triesters of fatty acids (long carboxylic acids) with glycerol

- biofuel is composed of random, single fatty acids

  • one of the major food groups of our diet.

  • Fats: solid or semisolid at room temperature; found in animals

  • Oils: liquid; originate chiefly in plants and fish


Warmup 5 minutes

Waxes: esters of fatty acids usually with one hydroxyl group.

Terpenes: complicatedpentane polymers; natural byproducts of plant metabolism

Steroids


Warmup 5 minutes

Phospolipids

main constituents of cell membranes

ester or amide derivatives of glycerol with fatty acids and phosphoric acid.

Soaps and Detergents: 8+ carbons chains (hydrophobic) that exhibit unusual behavior in water due to the presence of carboxylic acid and salt regions (hydrophillic)


Warmup 5 minutes

Oil Refining

  • breaking down polymers or making polymers larger

  • Polymer Chemistry

  • oil refined to produce pure polymers

  • polymers are converted into gasoline, plastics, rubber, or pharmaceutical precursors


Warmup 5 minutes

2. Which best highlights the main difference between carbohydrates and proteins?

a. Carbohydrates are organic and proteins are inorganic

b. Proteins are polymers and carbohydrates are monomers

c. Proteins are monomers and carbohydrates are polymers

d. Proteins are made of amino acids and carbohydrates are made of sugars

NOW answer these questions!

1. The DNA in our genes codes for:

a. amino acid sequences for many proteins

b. base pair sequences for lipid storage

c. carbohydrate sequences

d. none of the above


Warmup 5 minutes

4. What do all amino acids have in common?

a. they are all inorganic

b. they contain an amine group and a carboxyl group

c. they are all present in the structure of RNA

d. they all have the same R chain, allowing them to form bonds with one another

3. Which pair of substances includes two lipids?

a. steroids, sucrose

b. sucrase, detergent

c. detergent, steroids

d. oil, valine

e. wax, sucrase


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