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GLOBALISATION AND A LABOUR AGENDA. Major dimension of globalisation:defining the concept Globalisation and polarisation Impact of globalisation on Workers’ Organisations The challenge:govern or fight globalisation The ILO agenda: Decent Work and the World Commission on Globalisation.

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GLOBALISATION AND A LABOUR AGENDA

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Globalisation and a labour agenda l.jpg

GLOBALISATION AND A LABOUR AGENDA

  • Major dimension of globalisation:defining the concept

  • Globalisation and polarisation

  • Impact of globalisation on Workers’ Organisations

  • The challenge:govern or fight globalisation

  • The ILO agenda: Decent Work and the World Commission on Globalisation


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GLOBALISATION: HISTORICAL DEVELOPMENTS

  • Continuity or radical changes in:

    • Technology

    • Evolution of means of transportation

    • Political changes


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GLOBALISATION OF:

  • Trade

  • Production

  • Finance

  • Cultures

  • Politics


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GLOBALISATION OF TRADE

  • TNCs develop:

    • World market

    • Regional markets

  • Production still based in few industrialised countries:

    • Fordism/Taylorism

    • Standardisation of products


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GLOBALISATION OF PRODUCTION (1)

  • Transition to post-Fordism / Toyotism

  • Decentralisation of production units / outsourcing

  • Flexibility in production lines

  • Reduction of workers

  • New job profiles (skilled workers)

  • Diversification of products

    • TNCs operating on a global scale


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GLOBALISATION OF PRODUCTION (2)

  • More than 60,000 TNCs

  • Fifty-one of the world's top 100 economies are corporations.

  • TNCs control 2/3 of all world trade and 80 % of foreign investment

Source: www.unctad.org

Source: Anfreff W., Le multinazionali globali - Trieste 2000


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GLOBALISATION OF PRODUCTION (3)

  • TNCs employ only 3% of the total world labour force (2.5 billion workers)

  • The 200 largest TNCs employed slightly 1% of the total labour force and have a turnover equal to 28.3% of the world GNP

Source: www.oneworld.net/guides/TNCs/

Source:www.globalpolicy.org/socecon/tncs/top200.htm


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GLOBALISATION OF FINANCE (1)

  • Political decisions to liberalise capital’s circulation

  • Creation of a global financial network

  • Daily transactions: more than 2000 billion US $ (1/4 of total world trade value)

Source: www.wto.org (Annual Report of the Director-General 2001)


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GLOBALISATION OF FINANCE (2)

  • Where does this money come from?

    • Productivity (transition to post-Fordism)

    • Reduction of salaries and welfare

    • Pension funds

    • Financial resources allocated for speculation

    • Low investments (saturated traditional markets)


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GLOBALISATION OF CULTURES

  • Development of the media via satellites

  • Global media concentration

  • Advertising

  • Less than 6000 world languages (95% of world population speak around 100 languages). One person in 5 speaks English

  • One world language for business


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GLOBALISATION OF POLITICAL SYSTEMS

  • New geopolitical system

  • Development of democratic principles

  • Human rights and core labour standards as universal values


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OTHER FACTORS OF GLOBALISATION (1)

  • Neo-liberal policies/Washington consensus

  • Structural Adjustment Programmes (S.A.P.’s) and the new policies of the IMF on Poverty Reduction (P.R.S.P.)

  • Privatisation of public enterprises

  • Privatisation of welfare/social protection


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OTHER FACTORS OF GLOBALISATION (2)

  • Fiscal crises if national states

  • Reduction of tariffs & trade barriers (GATT and WTO)

  • Concentration of capital (mergers)

  • Development of new products (New Economy): services and information

  • Digital divide


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THE DIGITAL DIVIDE (3)

  • 60 billion web pages

  • Between 300-400 million of web-sites

  • 200 million users

  • 95% of users in the north hemisphere

  • 60% of users visit 4 major web-sites: AOL-Time Warner, Yahoo, MSF, Napster

  • 52% of web sites in English


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GLOBALISATION OR POLARISATION? (1)

  • Foreign Direct Investments (FDI)

    • 49 LDC receive 0.5% of FDI

  • Share in FDI inflows

    • Africa below 1%

Source: UNCTAD “World Investment Report 2001” - Chp. 1. See: www.unctad.org


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GLOBALISATION OR POLARISATION? (2)

  • Income distribution

    - 1/5 of world population controls 80% of world’s resources

    - 20% of the world’s population consumes 86% of goods produced

    - The richest 20% of the world’s population had at their disposal 86% of the world GDP while the poorest 20%had access to a mere 1%

Source: Gallino, Globalizzazione e diseguaglianza - Bari 2000


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GLOBALISATION OR POLARISATION? (3)

  • Percentage in World Trade

    • Africa 1%

      While world trade has increased ten times since 1970 and more food is produced per person than ever before, the number of people going hungry in Africa has doubled


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GLOBALISATION OR POLARISATION? (4)

  • More than 250 million children at work

  • 120 million working children have no access to school

  • Number of “official” unemployed is of 160 million workers (500 million new jobs needed over the next decade)

  • 500 million workers are unable to keep their families above the $1 poverty line (of the 1.3 billion people living in poverty worldwide, more than 70% of them are women and girls.)

Source: ILO World Employment Report 2001 (www.ilo.org) -

ICFTUConference of women trade union leaders, Rio di Janeiro, 18-21 May 1999


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Impact of Globalisation on Workers’ Organisations (1)

  • Decrease of trade union density

  • From national agreements/negotiations to enterprise/individual agreements

  • Abolition of check off systems

  • Weak tripartite machinery

  • Increase of the informal sector (most of the workers employed in the informal sector are women and children)


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Impact of Globalisation on Workers’ Organisations (2)

  • Increase of atypical forms of labour (contract labour). These form are more common among women than among men (90% of homeworkers in EU are women)

  • Increase of EPZs (33 countries involved)

  • Global attack against workers’ rights

Source: www.icftu.org/survey


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Impact of Globalisation on Workers’ Rights (1)

  • over 300 strikes repressed by employers or the police, in nearly 90 countries

  • about 8,500 arrested or detained

  • 209 trade unionists killed or “disappeared”

  • over 100,000 harassed

  • 20,000 dismissed because of their trade union activities

Source: ICFTU Survey of Violations of Trade Union Rights 2001 (http://www.icftu.org/survey).


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Impact of Globalisation on Workers’ Rights (2)

  • 20 million bounded labourers worldwide

  • 700.000 women and children victims of cross-border human trafficking each year

  • worldwide women are paid anything between 10-50% less than men for doing similar job or different job of equal value

Source:PSI Women - N.14- January 2002 (www.world-psi.org)

ICFTU:www.icftu.org/survey


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THE CHALLENGE:GOVERN OR FIGHT GLOBALISATION?(1)

  • Organising / Global unions

  • Extension of the European Works Councils (Global representation of workers/framework agreements)

  • Codes of Conduct and Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR)


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THE CHALLENGE:GOVERN OR FIGHT GLOBALISATION?(2)

  • Trade union networking and global solidarity

  • Globalisation of workers’ rights: ILO Declaration on Fundamental Principles and Rights at Work

  • TU nat./inter. policies: links / coherent international framework/governance/co-ordination of economic, trade, and social policies


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THE CHALLENGE:GOVERN OR FIGHT GLOBALISATION?(3)

  • Trade unions and Decent Work

  • Social dimension of globalisation and the role of the ILO in the world agenda (G8 and relationships with IMF/WB/WTO


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THE ILO AGENDA

  • Decent Work agenda

  • World Commission on the Social dimension of globalisation


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THE DECENT WORK AGENDA:

  • Decent Work and the role of the ILO to enhance:

    • Workers’ rights

    • Employment

    • Social protection

    • Social Dialogue


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WORKERS’RIGHTS

  • Ratification and implementation of core labour standards (eight core conventions)

  • Ratification and implementation of international labour standards

  • Participation to the ILS supervisory system and to the follow-up of the Declaration


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EMPLOYMENT

  • Employment policies

    - Equal opportunities and treatments

  • Development of SME


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SOCIAL PROTECTION

  • Development of social security systems

  • Pension and retirement schemes

  • Other welfare benefits

  • Safety nets for the informal sector

  • O.S.H. and the Environment


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SOCIAL DIALOGUE

  • Development of tripartism

  • Strengthening workers’ and employers’ organisations

  • Strengthening tripartite machinery

  • Strengthening negotiations between social partners at national/enterprise/national level


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World Commission on the Social dimension of globalisation

  • National governance

  • Global governance : fair rules/better international policies/more accountable institutions/mobilizing action for change


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PROGRAMME FOR WORKERS’ ACTIVITIES OF THE ILO TURIN CENTRE(ACTRAV-Turin)

[email protected]

THANK YOU!


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