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Phonetics. Class # 2 Chapter 6. Consonants – Place of articulation. Bilabial Labiodental Interdental Alveolar Palatal Velar Glottal. Consonants – Manner of articulation. Stop Fricative Affricate Nasal Liquid Glide. Consonants - Voice. Voiced Voiceless. Consonants - Review.

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phonetics

Phonetics

Class # 2

Chapter 6

consonants place of articulation
Consonants – Place of articulation
  • Bilabial
  • Labiodental
  • Interdental
  • Alveolar
  • Palatal
  • Velar
  • Glottal
consonants manner of articulation
Consonants – Manner of articulation
  • Stop
  • Fricative
  • Affricate
  • Nasal
  • Liquid
  • Glide
consonants voice
Consonants - Voice
  • Voiced
  • Voiceless
consonants review
Consonants - Review
  • Voiceless velar stop
  • Voiced labiodental fricative
  • Voiced palatal affricate
  • Voiced palatal glide
  • Voiced velar nasal
  • Voiceless interdental fricative
vowels
Vowels
  • Different from consonants
  • A lot more variation (different dialects)
  • Vowels carry pitch and loudness: you can sing them.
  • Vowel sounds can ‘stand alone.’
  • Described by tongue height and backness
  • Also by rounding and tense/lax
vowels1
Vowels
  • Number of vowels in American English:
    • 15
  • Two types of vowels:
    • Simple vowels (12):monophthongs
      • No noticeable change in quality during their articulation:
        • [i]: beat [I]: bit
        • [e]: bait [ɛ ]: bet
        • [u]: lose [U]: put
        • [o]: boat [ɔ]: thought
        • [æ]: cat [a]: car
        • [ʌ ]: cut [ə]: suppose
vowels2
Vowels
  • Two types of vowels:
    • Diphthongs (3):
      • Vowels that exhibit a change in quality within a single syllable;
      • They are made up of two sounds
      • In English, the change in quality is due to tongue movement away from the initial vowel articulation toward a glide position
        • [aj]: buy, ice
        • [aw]: cow, now
        • [ɔj]: boy
describing vowels
Describing vowels

Tense: i, e, u, o, aj , aw, ɔj

Lax: I, ɛ, ə, ʌ, ɔ, æ, a, U

describing vowels1
Describing vowels
  • Four aspects of vowels for simple vowels:
    • Tongue height:
      • Raising or lowering the body of the tongue
        • [i]: beat; [I]: bit
        • [u]: boot; [U]: put
          • High (4): the front part of the tongue is high in the mouth;
        • [æ]: cat [a]: pot
          • Low (2)
        • [ə ]: sofa [ʌ ]: cut
        • [e]: late; [ɛ ]: let
        • [ɔ ]: law [o]: boat;
          • Mid (6): tongue is raised to a position midway b/w the high and low vowels.
describing vowels2
Describing vowels
  • Tongue backness (part of the tongue involved): advancing or retracting the body of the tongue
    • Front (5):
      • [i]: beet [I]: bit
      • [e]: late [ɛ ]: bet
      • [æ]: cat
    • Central (2):
      • [ə ]: sofa [ʌ ]: cut
    • Back (5):
      • [u]: boot [U]: put
      • [o]: boat [ɔ ]: law [a]: bomb
describing vowels3
Describing vowels
  • lip rounding: whether lips are rounded or spread.
    • Rounded (4): [u, U, o, ɔ]
    • Unrounded (8):
      • [i]: beet [I]: bit
      • [e]: late [ɛ ]: bet
      • [æ]: cat
      • [ə ]: sofa [ʌ ]: cut
      • [a]: bomb
describing vowels4
Describing vowels
  • Tenseness:
    • Duration and tension of the tongue muscles:
      • Tense (4): produced with greater tension of the tongue muscles and often longer in duration;
        • [i, e, u, o]
      • Lax (8): produced with less tension of the tongue muscles and often shorter in duration.
        • 8: [I, ɛ, ə, ʌ, ɔ, æ, a, U,]
describing vowels5
Describing vowels

Ex.: Describe the following vowels (5)

  • [i]
  • [e]
  • [U]
  • [o]
  • [ɛ ]

References:

  • [i]: a high front unrounded tense vowel
  • [e]: a mid front unrounded tense vowel
  • [U]: a high back rounded lax vowel
  • [o]: a mid back rounded tense vowel
  • [ɛ ]: a mid front unrounded lax vowel
transcription vowels
Transcription – Vowels
  • beat about
  • lose late
  • buy boat
  • but boy
  • bit cat
  • put let
  • cow hot
practice transcribe the words
Practice – Transcribe the words
  • Tog peel
  • Kid stun
  • Attain Oscar
  • Despise cooler
  • Elbow sigh
  • Juice explode
  • Clinical remove
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