Phonetics
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Phonetics. Class # 2 Chapter 6. Consonants – Place of articulation. Bilabial Labiodental Interdental Alveolar Palatal Velar Glottal. Consonants – Manner of articulation. Stop Fricative Affricate Nasal Liquid Glide. Consonants - Voice. Voiced Voiceless. Consonants - Review.

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Phonetics

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Phonetics

Phonetics

Class # 2

Chapter 6


Consonants place of articulation

Consonants – Place of articulation

  • Bilabial

  • Labiodental

  • Interdental

  • Alveolar

  • Palatal

  • Velar

  • Glottal


Consonants manner of articulation

Consonants – Manner of articulation

  • Stop

  • Fricative

  • Affricate

  • Nasal

  • Liquid

  • Glide


Consonants voice

Consonants - Voice

  • Voiced

  • Voiceless


Consonants review

Consonants - Review

  • Voiceless velar stop

  • Voiced labiodental fricative

  • Voiced palatal affricate

  • Voiced palatal glide

  • Voiced velar nasal

  • Voiceless interdental fricative


Vowels

Vowels

  • Different from consonants

  • A lot more variation (different dialects)

  • Vowels carry pitch and loudness: you can sing them.

  • Vowel sounds can ‘stand alone.’

  • Described by tongue height and backness

  • Also by rounding and tense/lax


Vowels1

Vowels

  • Number of vowels in American English:

    • 15

  • Two types of vowels:

    • Simple vowels (12):monophthongs

      • No noticeable change in quality during their articulation:

        • [i]: beat[I]: bit

        • [e]: bait[ɛ ]: bet

        • [u]: lose[U]: put

        • [o]: boat[ɔ]: thought

        • [æ]: cat[a]: car

        • [ʌ ]: cut[ə]: suppose


Vowels2

Vowels

  • Two types of vowels:

    • Diphthongs (3):

      • Vowels that exhibit a change in quality within a single syllable;

      • They are made up of two sounds

      • In English, the change in quality is due to tongue movement away from the initial vowel articulation toward a glide position

        • [aj]: buy, ice

        • [aw]: cow, now

        • [ɔj]: boy


Describing vowels

Describing vowels

Tense: i, e, u, o, aj , aw, ɔj

Lax: I, ɛ, ə, ʌ, ɔ, æ, a, U


Describing vowels1

Describing vowels

  • Four aspects of vowels for simple vowels:

    • Tongue height:

      • Raising or lowering the body of the tongue

        • [i]: beat; [I]: bit

        • [u]: boot; [U]: put

          • High (4): the front part of the tongue is high in the mouth;

        • [æ]: cat[a]: pot

          • Low (2)

        • [ə ]: sofa [ʌ ]: cut

        • [e]: late; [ɛ ]: let

        • [ɔ ]: law [o]: boat;

          • Mid (6): tongue is raised to a position midway b/w the high and low vowels.


Describing vowels2

Describing vowels

  • Tongue backness (part of the tongue involved): advancing or retracting the body of the tongue

    • Front (5):

      • [i]: beet[I]: bit

      • [e]: late[ɛ ]: bet

      • [æ]: cat

    • Central (2):

      • [ə ]: sofa [ʌ ]: cut

    • Back (5):

      • [u]: boot [U]: put

      • [o]: boat[ɔ ]: law[a]: bomb


Describing vowels3

Describing vowels

  • lip rounding: whether lips are rounded or spread.

    • Rounded (4): [u, U, o, ɔ]

    • Unrounded (8):

      • [i]: beet[I]: bit

      • [e]: late[ɛ ]: bet

      • [æ]: cat

      • [ə ]: sofa [ʌ ]: cut

      • [a]: bomb


Describing vowels4

Describing vowels

  • Tenseness:

    • Duration and tension of the tongue muscles:

      • Tense (4): produced with greater tension of the tongue muscles and often longer in duration;

        • [i, e, u, o]

      • Lax (8): produced with less tension of the tongue muscles and often shorter in duration.

        • 8: [I, ɛ, ə, ʌ, ɔ, æ, a, U,]


Describing vowels5

Describing vowels

Ex.: Describe the following vowels (5)

  • [i]

  • [e]

  • [U]

  • [o]

  • [ɛ ]

    References:

  • [i]: a high front unrounded tense vowel

  • [e]: a mid front unrounded tense vowel

  • [U]: a high back rounded lax vowel

  • [o]: a mid back rounded tense vowel

  • [ɛ ]: a mid front unrounded lax vowel


Transcription vowels

Transcription – Vowels

  • beat about

  • lose late

  • buy boat

  • but boy

  • bit cat

  • put let

  • cow hot


Practice transcribe the words

Practice – Transcribe the words

  • Togpeel

  • Kidstun

  • AttainOscar

  • Despisecooler

  • Elbowsigh

  • Juiceexplode

  • Clinical remove


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