ROCK!
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ROCK!

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ROCK!


SubjectScienceTopicIdentify that the lithosphere contains rocks and minerals and that minerals make up rocks. Describe how rocks and minerals are formed and/or classified.ObjectivesClassify different rocks within the 3 Major Rock TypesLearning the difference between Igneous, Sedimentary, and Metamorphic rocks.ProcedureFollow through the Power Point EvaluationGame: Password at the end of the Power PointMaterialsComputer for Power Point


Different Kinds of Rocks


Igneous rocks are formed from the solidification of molten rock material. There are two basic types: 1) intrusive igneous rocks such as diorite, gabbro, granite and pegmatite that solidify below Earth's surface; and 2) extrusive igneous rocks such as andesite, basalt, obsidian, pumice, rhyolite and scoria that solidify on or above Earth's surface.


Igneous Rocks

Intrusive

Extrusive

Diorite (quartz)

Andesite

Basalt

Granite


Diorite is a coarse-grained, intrusive igneous rock that contains a mixture of feldspar, pyroxene, hornblende and sometimes quartz. The specimen shown in the picture is about two inches (five centimeters) across.

Granite is a coarse-grained, light colored, intrusive igneous rock that contains mainly quartz and feldspar minerals. The specimen in the picture is about two inches (five centimeters) across

Andesite is a fine-grained, extrusive igneous rock composed mainly of plagioclase with other minerals such as hornblende, pyroxene and biotite. The specimen shown in the picture is about two inches (five centimeters) across.

Basalt is a fine-grained, dark-colored extrusive igneous rock composed mainly of plagioclase and pyroxene. The specimen shown in the picture is about two inches (five centimeters) across.


Sedimentary rocks are formed by the accumulation of sediments. There are three basic types of sedimentary rocks: 1) clastic sedimentary rocks such as breccia, conglomerate, sandstone and shale, that are formed from mechanical weathering debris; 2) chemical sedimentary rocks such as rock salt and some limestones, that form when dissolved materials precipitate from solution; and, 3) organic sedimentary rocks such as coal and some limestones which form from the accumulation of plant or animal debris.


Sedimentary

  • Clastic

Sandstone

Shale


Sandstone is a clastic sedimentary rock made up mainly of sand-size (1/16 to 2 millimeter diameter) weathering debris. Environments where large amounts of sand can accumulate include beaches, deserts, flood plains and deltas. The specimen shown in the picture is about two inches (five centimeters) across.

Shale is a clastic sedimentary rock that is made up of clay-size (less then 1/256 millimeter in diameter) weathering debris. It typically breaks into thin flat pieces. The specimen shown in the picture is about two inches (five centimeters) across.


Sedimentary

  • Chemical

Limestone

Rock Salt


Limestone is a rock that is composed primarily of calcium carbonate. It can form organically from the accumulation of shell, coral, algal and fecal debris. It can also form chemically from the precipitation of calcium carbonate from lake or ocean water. Limestone is used in many ways. Some of the most common are: production of cement, crushed stone and acid neutralization. The specimen shown in the picture is about two inches (five centimeters) across.

Rock Salt is a chemical sedimentary rock that forms from the evaporation of ocean or saline lake waters. It is also known by the mineral name "halite". It is rarely found at Earth's surface, except in areas of very arid climate. It is often mined for use in the chemical industry or for use as a winter highway treatment. Some halite is processed for use as a seasoning for food. The specimen shown in the picture is about two inches (five centimeters) across.


Sedimentary

  • Organic

Limestone

Coal


Coal is an organic sedimentary rock that forms mainly from plant debris. The plant debris usually accumulates in a swamp environment. Coal is combustible and is often mined for use as a fuel. The specimen shown in the picture is about two inches (five centimeters) across.

Limestone can be formed organically from the accumulation of shell, coral, algal and fecal debris.


Metamorphic rocks have been modified by heat, pressure and chemical process usually while buried deep below Earth's surface. Exposure to these extreme conditions has altered the mineralogy, texture and chemical composition of the rocks. There are two basic types of metamorphic rocks: 1) foliated metamorphic rocks such as gneiss, phyllite, schist and slate which have a layered or banded appearance that is produced by exposure to heat and directed pressure; and, 2) non-foliated metamorphic rocks such as marble and quartzite which do not have a layered or banded appearance.


Metamorphic

  • Foliated

Slate

Gneiss


Slate is a foliated metamorphic rock that is formed through the metamorphism of shale. It is a low grade metamorphic rock that splits into thin pieces. The specimen shown in the picture is about two inches (five centimeters) across.

Gneiss is foliated metamorphic rock that has a banded appearance and is made up of granular mineral grains. It typically contains abundant quartz or feldspar minerals. The specimen shown above is about two inches (five centimeters) across


Metamorphic

  • Non-Foliated

Amphibolite

Marble


Amphibolite is a non-foliated metamorphic rock that forms through re-crystallization under conditions of high viscosity and directed pressure. It is composed primarily of amphibole and plagioclase, usually with very little quartz. The specimen shown in the picture is about two inches (five centimeters) across.

Marble is a non-foliated metamorphic rock that is produced from the metamorphism of limestone. It is composed primarily of calcium carbonate. The specimen shown in the picture is about two inches (five centimeters) across.


Now let’s ASSESS what you’ve learned!


A Vocabulary Review Activity


Setup Directions:

  • Each student sees the “Password” given on each screen.

  • When the student knows whether the “Password” is a Igneous, Sedimentary, or Metamorphic Rock, they stand up.

  • When they answer the “Password” correctly, you move on to the next Rock.

  • Teachers “choice” prize is given to the students with the most answered “Passwords”


is…

The

Shale


Clastic Sedimentary


is…

The

Coal


Organic Sedimentary


is…

The

Gneiss


Foliated Metamorphic


is…

The

Limestone


Chemical Sedimentary


is…

The

Diorite


Intrusive Igneous


is…

The

Pumice


Extrusive Igneous


is…

The

Rock Salt


Chemical Sedimentary


is…

The

Marble


Non-foliated Metamorphic


is…

The

Shale


Clastic Sedimentary


is…

The

Amphibolite


Non-foliated Metamorphic


is…

The

Basalt


Extrusive Igneous Rock


Congratulations!!! You are now an EXPERTon Rocks!


Citations

(2005). geology.com. Retrieved October 3, 2010, from : http://geology.com/rocks/

(n.d.). Online PowerPoint Games. Retrieved October 4, 2010, from : http://jc-schools.net/tutorials/PPT-games/s/PPT-games/


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