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ÉCLAIRE model inter-comparison of atmospheric nitrogen deposition and concentrations over Europe. R.J. Wichink Kruit 1 , D. Simpson 2 , M. Schaap 1 , R. Kranenburg 1 , E. Dammers 1 ,

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ÉCLAIRE model inter-comparison of atmospheric nitrogen deposition and concentrations over Europe

R.J. Wichink Kruit1, D. Simpson2, M. Schaap1, R. Kranenburg1, E. Dammers1,

C.A. Geels3, C. Skjoth4, M. Engardt5, A. Graff6, R. Stern7 , B. Bessagnet8, L. Rouil8, J.M. Baldasano9, M. Pay9, D. Hauglustaine10, A. Nyiri2, M.A. Sutton11, S. Reis11,

P. Thunis12 and C. Cuvelier12

1 TNO, Dept. of Climate, Air and Sustainability, P.O. Box 80015, NL-3508TA Utrecht, The Netherlands

2 Norwegian Meteorological Institute, Air Pollution Section Research Department, P.O. Box 43, Blindern, N-0313, Oslo, Norway

3 Aarhus University, Department of Environmental Science-Atmospheric modeling, Frederiksborgvej 399, 4000 Roskilde, Denmark

4 University of Worcester, National Pollen and Aerobiology Research Unit, Henwick Grove, VR2 6AJ, Worcester, United Kingdom

5 SMHI, Norkoping

6 Umweltbundesamt, Postfach 1406, D-06813 Dessau-Roßlau, Germany

7 Freie Universität Berlin, Institut für Meteorologie und Troposphärische Umweltforschung, Carl-Heinrich-Becker Weg 6-10, D-12165 Berlin, Germany

8 INERIS, Institut National de l’Environnement Industriel et des Risques Parc Technologique, ALATA, F-60550 Verneuil-en-Halatte, France

9 Barcelona Supercomputing Center, c/ Jordi Girona 29, E-08034 Barcelona, Spain

10 Laboratoire des Sciences du Climat et de l’environnement, UMR 8212 CEA-CNRS-UVSQ, Gif-sur-Yvette, France

11 CEH, Natural Environmental Research Council, Bush Estate, Pinicuik, Midlothian, EH26 0QB

12 European Commission, DG Joint Research Centre, Institute for Environment and Sustainability, I-21020 Ispra (Va), Italy


It is difficult to say anything about uncertainties in model calculations of Nr-deposition as there are no observations of total Nr deposition available yet.

This study aims to:

  • deliver an ensemble map of the total Nr-deposition over Europe based on 7 regional European CTMs, and to
  • estimate the inter-model variation in the total Nr-deposition over Europe
  • validate the models by comparing modelled wet depositions and concentrations with observations from the EMEP wet deposition network and NitroEurope IP
model settings
Modelling the European Nitrogen budgetModel settings


INCA (global)

Emissions:provided by INERIS at

0.5° x 0.25° Longitude/Latitude

Note: INCA used own emissions!

Resolution: 0.5° x 0.25° (~28x28 km2)

DEHM: hemispheric (~ 50x50 km2)

INCA (global): 3.75° x 1.875° (~210x210 km2)

Other Input:not prescribed.

Output domain:

individual model results
Modelling the European Nitrogen budgetIndividual model results

dry NHx

wet NHx

dry NOy

wet NOy









10 day running mean of model domain1
Modelling the European Nitrogen budget10-day running mean of model domain

Dry NHx ~ 45%

Dry NOy ~ 35%

Wet NHx ~ 55%

Wet Noy ~ 65%

conclusions from model inter comparison
Development of GHG projection guidelinesConclusions from model inter-comparison
  • This study showed that the total Nr-deposition (NHx +NOy) in the model domain were rather similar in all models
  • The variation in model results is largest for the dry deposition of NHx
  • Larger dry deposition is compensated by smaller wet deposition
  • The average variation in the modeled Nr-deposition was about
    • 30-50% over land and
    • 50-100% over water
  • NHx vs. NOy deposition is approximately 50% vs. 50%, but large regional differences!
  • Dry versus wet deposition contributions are approximately
    • 45% vs. 55% for NHx and
    • 35% vs. 65% for NOy and
    • 40% vs. 60% for total Nr (but large regional differences again!)
Modelling the European Nitrogen budget











Modelling the European Nitrogen budget

Conclusions from comparison with observations

  • Ensemble results of the seven regional CTM models are generally better than the individual model results
  • Modelled wet deposition of NOy correlates much better with observed wet deposition than NHx.
  • Regional CTMs are well able to estimate ‘background’ NH3concentrations
  • Data from NitroEurope IP is very useful for the ECLAIRE model evaluation!
  • Further analysis of the model-measurement comparison and reasons for inter-model differences is a priority for the next phase in ECLAIRE.