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Химическая связь и строение молекул PowerPoint PPT Presentation


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Химическая связь и строение молекул. Молекула – это…. … минимумом полной энергии системы. Термодинамика процесса образования ХС. Процесс самопроизвольный, т.е. ∆ G <0. Энтропийный фактор. Энтальпийный фактор. А + В → АВ. S 2. S 1. S 1 > S 2  ∆S < 0.

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Химическая связь и строение молекул

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5811388


5811388


5811388

.

, .. G <0

+

S2

S1

S1>S2 S < 0

S < 0, ..


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G < 0 < 0

.


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1. - . ( )

-

-

+

+

2. :

) ( );

) ( ).


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3. .( )

1927 . .

.


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. . .

/

r0

. . .

- 435

0,074

r,

F.<F.

F.>F.

F.= F.


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, .


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()

()

(., ., .).

1927 .

. (., ., . .).

40-

, .


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1. . . , .. .

2. .

3. . . . , .

4. , .


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  • 5. . . , .

6. , , , -, - -.

>

7. , , . -, - -.

8. .


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+

H

H

N

H

H

  • .

  • ?

  • 3.

- ?

- 4.


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-

() , ()


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1.

2.

3.

4.

5.

6.

7.


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5811388

-

II . IV

III (s- p-) . IX

( )

. .


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.

-


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, ,


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-

, .

= 0 , (H2 , Cl2, N2).

2,5-3,2 .


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H

Cl

()

C HCl , 17% .


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.. 83%.

100%- .


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()


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2

1

-

-

2+

F

F

, = 0.


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+

2-

S

+

H

H


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:

;

;

.


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, ,


5811388

HCl HBr HI

: 0,9 0,7 0,5


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-

H+ +

H

Cl

Cl


5811388


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:

: F, O, N, (Cl, S )


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-:

- (-)

-- :

-

-


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-

0,1 -5

4-50

100-400

, /


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-


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()

1. , . ( , ) - .

2. , 90-95%


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3. . :

) , ;

) .

4. .

, 2:

2() + 8() = 10.

5. , ( . , , ).


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6. . () :

> 0, , .


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1s-

1s-

2

.

.


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.

1s-

1s-

.

2- - ?


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+

.

1s-

1s-

.

2+ - ?


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.

1s-

1s-

.

2 ?


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E

E

s

p

2

-

2

-

s

c

p

.

2s

-

2s

-

s

c

1

=

-

=

(

)

(

8

2

)

3

2


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F

F

.

.

2p-

2p-

.

2s-

2s-

.

F2


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E

E

2-

2-

2s-

2s-

c

c

, O2


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, . , . , . , . , .


5811388

-


5811388

:

:

;

:

( 2+);

( 2)


5811388

:

. .;

:

;


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