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Introduction to Artificial Intelligence – Unit 1 What is AI? Course 240530. Dr. Avi Rosenfeld Based on slides from The Hebrew University of Jerusalem School of Engineering and Computer Science Instructor: Jeff Rosenschein. Topics. Week Breakdown

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introduction to artificial intelligence unit 1 what is ai course 240530

Introduction to Artificial Intelligence –Unit 1What is AI?Course 240530

Dr. Avi Rosenfeld

Based on slides from

The Hebrew University of Jerusalem

School of Engineering and Computer Science

Instructor: Jeff Rosenschein

topics
Topics

Week Breakdown

  • Introduction to A.I., Course Organization, Introduction to Search
  • A*, Minimax, BFS, DFS, Heuristic search
  • Local Search Constraint Satisfaction Problems, DSP and DCOP algorithms
  • STRIPS and planning algorithms, Probability Theory and Bayesian Networks
  • Web based A.I., information retrieval and recommender systems
  • Neural Nets, Perceptrons and Machine Learning
  • Knowledge Representation, Game Theory, Bounded Rationality and Fuzzy Logic
  • NLP
  • Agents and Multi-agent systems
  • Robotics and Vision
  • Multidisciplinary Topics And Applications
  • Business Intelligence Applications
  • Project #3 (B.I.)
  • Review
what is ai
What is AI?

Views of AI fall into four categories:

The AMAI textbook advocates “acting rationally”

artificial intelligence
Artificial Intelligence
  • Why is it difficult to program computers to do what humans easily do?
    • Recognize faces
    • Understand human language
  • (Ironically, we can more successfully program computers to do what humans cannot easily do
    • Play chess at world champion levels
    • Carry out massive optimization problems)
  • Processing power? – doesn’t seem to be the real issue
  • Software?
    • Scruffy vs. Neat debate
artificial intelligence scruffy vs neat
Artificial Intelligence:Scruffy vs. Neat
  • The Scruffy approach says, “Build systems that work, and principles will emerge.”
    • E.g., the Wright Brothers building a heavier-than-air flying machine
  • The Neat approach says, “Explore principles first, and having understood them, embody them in systems.”
    • E.g., radar
acting humanly turing test
Acting humanly: Turing Test
  • Turing (1950) “Computing machinery and intelligence”:
  • “Can machines think?”“Can machines behave intelligently?”
  • Operational test for intelligent behavior: the Imitation Game
acting rationally rational agent
Acting rationally: rational agent
  • Rational behavior: doing the right thing
  • The right thing: that which is expected to maximize goal achievement, given the available information
  • Doesn’t necessarily involve thinking – e.g., blinking reflex – but thinking should be in the service of rational action
state of the art
State of the art
  • Deep Blue defeated the reigning world chess champion Garry Kasparov in 1997
  • Proved a mathematical conjecture (Robbins conjecture) unsolved for decades
  • No hands across America (driving autonomously 98% of the time from Pittsburgh to San Diego); DARPA Grand Challenges (and Google) show that cars can drive themselves inside and outside of cities
state of the art1
State of the Art
  • During the 1991 Gulf War, US forces deployed an AI logistics planning and scheduling program that involved up to 50,000 vehicles, cargo, and people
  • NASA’s on-board autonomous planning program controlled the scheduling of operations for a spacecraft, and for the Mars Rover
  • Proverb solves crossword puzzles better than most humans
topics we ll cover
Topics We’ll Cover
  • Introduction and Background: ½ week
  • Search: 2 ½ weeks
  • Knowledge Representation: 2 weeks
  • Planning: 2 weeks
  • Learning: 3 weeks
  • Game Theory: 3 weeks
  • Summation: 1 week
ijcai 07 papers
IJCAI’07 Papers

Number of accepted papers, by topic:

  • 1,365 papers submitted (authors from 45 different countries)
  • Accepted 471 papers (unusually high percentage that year, 34.4% accepted)
ai s recent high visibility successes
AI’s Recent High-Visibility Successes
  • Self-driving cars
  • Watson
  • Siri
  • Data-intensive applications that use information analysis and learning to do things previously beyond machine capabilities
darpa s grand challenge
DARPA’s Grand Challenge
  • First Challenge: Driver-less vehicle go 130 miles across desert
    • This was not a simple task: it involved unclear roads, tunnels, roads along cliffs, and the path was given to teams only hours before the race
    • 2004: $1 million prize, utter failure
    • 2005: $2 million prize
google cars new york times ieee spectrum
Google Cars, New York Times,IEEE Spectrum

How Google’s cars work:http://spectrum.ieee.org/automaton/robotics/artificial-intelligence/how-google-self-driving-car-works

ibm s watson
IBM’s Watson
  • Jeopardy is a quiz show, where answers are given, and 3 contestants compete to be the first to provide the question:
    • “Freud published this landmark study in 1899.”
      • What is “The Interpretation of Dreams”?
  • In 2011, Watson competed against Ken Jennings (who had the longest championship streak, 75 days), and Brad Rutter, the all-time biggest money winner on the show
  • Final Score: Watson, $77,147;Jennings, $24,000, Rutter, $21,600
ibm s watson jeopardy winner
IBM’s Watson, Jeopardy Winner
  • “The first person mentioned by name in ‘The Man in the Iron Mask’ is this hero of a previous book by the same author.”
  • “Hemophilia is a hereditary condition in which this coagulates extremely slowly.”
  • This director, better known as an actor, directed his wife Audrey
  • “A long, tiresome speech delivered by a dessert topping.”
ai researchers head major industry research labs
AI Researchers Head Major Industry Research Labs
  • Microsoft, Yahoo, and Google all take this very, very seriously
  • Peter Norvig, Google Director of Research
  • Ron Brachman, built AT&T’s AI Research group, now Vice President of Worldwide Research Operations at Yahoo
  • Eric Horvitz, head of Adaptive Systems & Interaction Group, Microsoft Research
  • AI Theory and AI Practice are looked to for solutions
ad auctions
Ad Auctions
  • “Google reported revenues of $5.19 billion for the quarter ended March 31, 2008”
  • The vast majority of this is from those little ads on the right of the page
recommendation systems
Recommendation Systems

CollaborativeFiltering

Pioneered by, among others, Konstan and Riedl, GroupLens

Commercial sites that use collaborative filtering include:AmazonBarnes and NobleDigg.comhalf.ebay.comiTunesMusicmatchNetflix (the Netflix Prize, grand prize of $1,000,000 for algorithm that beats Netflix\'s own by 10%)TiVo…

data mining
Data Mining
  • Go through large amounts of data
  • Extract meaningful insight
  • Local Example: Ronen Feldman, Business School professor at Hebrew University (formerly Bar Ilan University), founded ClearForest (bought by Reuters)
collaborative filtering plus data mining
Collaborative Filtering plusData Mining

“The search for a better recommendation continues with numerous companies selling algorithms that promise a retailer more of an edge. For instance, Barneys New York, the upscale clothing store chain, says it got at least a 10 percent increase in online revenue by using data mining software that finds links between certain online behavior and a greater propensity to buy. Using a system developed by Proclivity Systems, Barneys used data about where and when a customer visited its site and other demographic information to determine on whom it should focus its e-mail messages.” – New York Times, 19.5.08

spam filters
Spam Filters

When all those emails from Barneys New York become oppressive…

comparative shoppers
Comparative Shoppers

Pioneered by, among others, Bruce Krulwich (BargainFinder), Oren Etzioni (MetaCrawler, NetBot [bought by Excite in 1997])

comparison shopping plus learning
Comparison Shopping Plus Learning
  • FareCast (formerly Hamlet) tracks airline prices, advises whether to buy now or wait until later
  • Founded by Oren Etzioni, bought by Microsoft in April 2008
what can t they do yet
What Can’t They Do (Yet)?
  • Integrate information in a more sophisticated way
    • “What were the combined earnings from ad auctions across Google, Yahoo, and Microsoft in 2007?”
  • Plan
    • “How can I drive from San Francisco to Los Angeles, in a way that reasonably maximizes the number of Starbucks stores I pass?”
speech understanding
Speech Understanding
  • Nuance’s Dragon NaturallySpeaking and IBM’s ViaVoice
google voice 11 3 09
Google Voice, 11.3.09
  • "FREE VOICE MAIL TRANSCRIPTIONS: From now on, you don’t have to listen to your messages in order; you don’t have to listen to them at all. In seconds, these recordings are converted into typed text. They show up as e-mail messages or text messages on your cellphone."
biology
Biology
  • Computational Biology
  • Techniques from Computer Science in general, and Artificial Intelligence in particular, are being used in the exploration of biological questions
  • AI researchers have played an important role in this (e.g., Daphne Koller, Nir Friedman)
computer games
Computer Games
  • Realistic single-agent and multi-agent activity in cooperative and competitive environments
  • What they call “AI” often isn’t
  • But they are getting more serious about it:
    • Companies have started up exploring
      • Game AI
      • Training programs (often military training) for reacting to realistic situations
other games poker
Other Games: Poker
  • Active research and competitions (machine vs. machine, machine vs. person) in Texas Hold-Em [University of Alberta, Carnegie-Mellon University]
  • Different domain than chess – imperfect information
  • CMU team is making use of game theoretic equilibrium concepts in their software
more game theory
More Game Theory…
  • Milind Tambe’s group at USC studied optimal strategies for intrusion detection, “Playing Games for Security: An Efficient Exact Algorithm for Solving Bayesian Stackelberg Games”, AAMAS’08
  • Interesting theoretical work, focused on efficient algorithms
  • Deployed for last 18 months at LAX airport in Los Angeles to tell guards how to patrol
contributions to other computer science fields
Contributions to Other Computer Science Fields
  • Operating Systems
  • Programming Languages
    • SmallTalk
    • Lisp
  • User Interface Design
    • Advances in use of (not invention of) windows, pointing devices, bitmapped graphics
  • Web Services
  • XML
a moment on ai ethics
A Moment on AI Ethics
  • Who is responsible if a self-driving car is at fault in a crash?
    • The software developer?
    • The company that installed the software?
    • The driver that trusted the software?
    • Society?
agents and environments
Agents and environments
  • The agent function maps from percept histories to actions:

[f: P* A]

  • The agent program runs on the physical architecture to produce f
  • agent = architecture + program
agents
Agents
  • An agent is anything that can be viewed as perceiving its environment through sensors and acting upon that environment through actuators
  • Human agent: eyes, ears, and other organs for sensors; hands, legs, mouth, and other body parts for actuators
  • Robotic agent: cameras and infrared range finders for sensors; various motors for actuators
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