Lecture 2 energy abundance
Download
1 / 24

LECTURE 2 ENERGY ABUNDANCE - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


  • 75 Views
  • Uploaded on

LECTURE 2 ENERGY ABUNDANCE. Dr. Rostamkolai. ECE 371 Sustainable Energy Systems. HISTORICAL PERSPECTIVE. There has been a continuous quest for using readily available energy sources by humans The history of earth in terms of time and energy are summarized in the following tables.

loader
I am the owner, or an agent authorized to act on behalf of the owner, of the copyrighted work described.
capcha
Download Presentation

PowerPoint Slideshow about ' LECTURE 2 ENERGY ABUNDANCE' - raanan


An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.


- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript
Lecture 2 energy abundance

LECTURE 2ENERGY ABUNDANCE

Dr. Rostamkolai

ECE 371

Sustainable Energy Systems


Historical perspective
HISTORICAL PERSPECTIVE

  • There has been a continuous quest for using readily available energy sources by humans

  • The history of earth in terms of time and energy are summarized in the following tables




Historical perspective3
HISTORICAL PERSPECTIVE

  • Growth in energy consumption with stages of human development is shown below (kWh/cap-day)


Characteristics of an industrial nation
CHARACTERISTICS OF AN INDUSTRIAL NATION

  • The degree of national industrialization of the world’s nations place them into the following three categories

    • Developed

    • Developing

    • Undeveloped


Characteristics of an industrial nation1
CHARACTERISTICS OF AN INDUSTRIAL NATION

  • The key indicators that determine in which of these categories a nation belongs are

    • Energy resources

    • Affluence

    • Trends into the future

  • These are measurable


Characteristics of an industrial nation2
CHARACTERISTICS OF AN INDUSTRIAL NATION

  • Technology makes it possible to process natural energy resources into a larger variety of forms suitable for various applications

    • One indicator of the degree of industrialization is the kind of energy used in the national economy

      • Highly industrialized nations use higher-specific-energy fuels


Characteristics of an industrial nation3
CHARACTERISTICS OF AN INDUSTRIAL NATION

  • A second indicator is the amount of energy used measured in

    • kWh/Capita

    • kWh/$GDP

      • Again, highly industrialized nations consume more energy per Capita or $GDP



Characteristics of an industrial nation5
CHARACTERISTICS OF AN INDUSTRIAL NATION

  • A third indicator is the efficiency of utilization of the energy supply

    • This indicator does not clearly show that the higher the degree of industrialization, the higher the efficiency of energy consumption

      • it is not as transparent as the other indicators


Characteristics of an industrial nation6
CHARACTERISTICS OF AN INDUSTRIAL NATION

  • Affluence is measured by the standard of living

    • The indicators are

      • Economic growth ($GDP/Capita)

      • The degree of impact of nation’s affluence on other nations

      • The degree of impact on the global environment


Characteristics of an industrial nation7
CHARACTERISTICS OF AN INDUSTRIAL NATION

  • Trends into the future include

    • Social aspects of disproportionate shares of energy utilization (kWh/Capita)

    • Types of fuel used (capital or income)

    • The choice between convenience and conservation by a nation’s population


Energy power
ENERGY & POWER

  • Energy (W) is defined as the capacity of doing work, and it is expressed in terms of

    • kWh

    • BTU

    • Calorie (Clement 1824, pre-SI)

    • ft-lb

    • J


Energy power1
ENERGY & POWER

  • Power (P) is defined as the time rate of doing work (P =dW/dt), and is expressed in terms of

    • kW

    • HP

    • ft-lb/min

  • There are two types of energy resources

    • Primary – Nonrenewable

    • Secondary - Renewable


Capital income energy resources
CAPITAL & INCOME ENERGY RESOURCES

  • Primary energy resources are capital energy resources

    • Implying expenditure from a one-time estate without replenishment (use it and lose it)

      • Consists of fossil fuels (coal, oil, natural gas), which require millions of years for geologic replacement

      • Also includes nuclear fuel (uranium), which are transformable but irreplaceable


Capital income energy resources1
CAPITAL & INCOME ENERGY RESOURCES

  • Secondary energy resources are income energy resources

    • Implying expenditure of replenished resources

      without loss of capital

      • Include the potential for lunar energy

        • Consists of ocean tides

        • Also includes thermal, hydro, wind, and biomass

  • The quest for comfort and ease of energy utilization led to discovery of electricity, which is about 190 years old


Capital income energy resources2
CAPITAL & INCOME ENERGY RESOURCES

  • The fuel mix in the U.S. from 1925 through 2000, compiled from the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), is shown below (in %)


Growth in energy consumption
GROWTH IN ENERGY CONSUMPTION

  • The energy consumption in the U.S. from 1900 to 2000 is shown below


Trends in energy consumption
TRENDS IN ENERGY CONSUMPTION

  • The electric energy generation in U.S. from 1950 to 2000 is shown below


Energy intensity
ENERGY INTENSITY

  • The energy intensity for the U.S. and the world from 1990 to 2000 is shown below

Quads = 1 x 1015 BTU BTU = 2.928 x 10-4 kWh


Energy intensity1
ENERGY INTENSITY

  • The projection of energy intensities for the U.S. and the world from 2005 to 2050 is shown below


Energy consumption
ENERGY CONSUMPTION

  • The projection of energy consumption in the U.S. from 2000 to 2025 is shown below


Conclusions
CONCLUSIONS

  • In conclusion

    • There has been a growth of energy consumption after the industrial revolution

    • Accelerated growth during this period resulted from technical advances by industrial nations

    • Usage of secondary energy resources were replaced by primary energy resources (change from income to capital resources)


ad