Renewable energy workshop
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Renewable Energy Workshop. Biomass From Forest, Farm & City. Biomass. City. Forest. Farm. Bio-Trend Systems Inc. Forest Biomass. What’s out there ??. Slash. Log Merchandizing. Defect. Non-Merchantable. Bio-Trend Systems Inc. More !!. Windrows.

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Renewable Energy Workshop

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Renewable energy workshop

Renewable EnergyWorkshop

Biomass

From

Forest, Farm & City


Biomass

Biomass

City

Forest

Farm

Bio-Trend Systems Inc.


Forest biomass

Forest Biomass


What s out there

What’s out there ??

Slash

Log Merchandizing

Defect

Non-Merchantable

Bio-Trend Systems Inc.


Renewable energy workshop

More !!

Windrows

Windrows represent about 15% of the total stand area

Bio-Trend Systems Inc.


And more

And More !!

Logging Debris

Chips

Chipper Frass

Bio-Trend Systems Inc.


And more1

And More !!

Disease

Fire

Blowdown

Insects

Bio-Trend Systems Inc.


And more2

And More !!

Low Quality Stands

Bio-Trend Systems Inc.


And more3

And More !!

Plantation Thinnings

Bio-Trend Systems Inc.


Plus heritage piles

Plus Heritage Piles

Lot’s of Stuff

40 feet

Up Close

Bio-Trend Systems Inc.


What s available what s the benefit

What’s Available ? What’s the Benefit ?

Bio-Trend Systems Inc.


What s the outlook annual forest depletion

What’s the Outlook ? Annual Forest Depletion

All Working Groups – mid-90’s

Climate Change  Stress  Mortality

Can We Expect Increased Mortality?

Millions of Cubic Metres

?

  • Yes, BC precedent, over 600 MM³ killed by Mtn. Pine Beetle, in an area

  • nearly equal to the size of Wisconsin – 60,000 square miles!

  • Mortality directly linked to climate change. No -40°C  Larva survive

  • Beetle is in Alberta! Risk of migration to Jack Pine is real.

Bio-Trend Systems Inc.


Farm biomass

Farm Biomass


Switch grass a weed

Switch Grass - a Weed ?

Bio-Trend Systems Inc.


Renewable energy workshop

Willow: Growin’ Like a Weed !

Pasture & Abandon

Land Available for Planting

In Ontario

1.2 Million ha !!!

At 3 Months

After Coppicing

At 3

Years !!

Bio-Trend Systems Inc.


Municipal solid waste msw

Municipal Solid Waste“MSW”


Some very old biomass

Some Very Old Biomass

Tires

Mixed

Plastics

C&D Wood Waste

Medical Waste

E - Waste

Bio-Trend Systems Inc.


Biomass processing densification

Biomass Processing & Densification


Processing requirements

Processing Requirements

Bio-Trend Systems Inc.


Densification

Densification

Fire Wood

Grains

Liquids

Wood or Grass

Pellets or

Brickets

Natural

Chips

Bio-Trend Systems Inc.


Energy density comparisons

Energy Density Comparisons

Moisture

Densificaion

Innovation

Replace

Fossil Fuels

Bio-Trend Systems Inc.


Energy use

BTU: British Thermal Unit = heat required to Raise

Temperature of 1 pound of water 1F

Energy Use

4000

3000

Size of Your Home

Square Feet

2000

1kWh = 3,413 BTU’s. A 2,000 sq.ft. home using 60,000 BTU is equivalent 17.6 kWh/day

1000

0

30

60

90

120

Thousand BTU’s/Day

Bio-Trend Systems Inc.


Relative comparison of alternative energy sources

Relative Comparison of AlternativeEnergy Sources

40

Ontario Source

Oregon Source

30

20

Cost per Million BTU’s

10

0

Propane

Heating

Oil

Electricity

Grain

(Corn)

Wood

Pellets

Natural

Gas

Fire

Wood

Bio-Trend Systems Inc.


Comparative heating costs for a 2000 sq ft home for 2008

Comparative “Heating” Costs forA 2000 Sq Ft Home for 2008

3000

Source: Grain Store Supplier

2000

Heat Cost – 2000 sq ft Home

1000

Electricity

Propane

Heating

Oil

Wood

Pellets

Natural

Gas

Grain

(Corn)

Fire

Wood

Bio-Trend Systems Inc.


Efficiency comparisons

Efficiency Comparisons

“The amount of energy harvested from 1 hectare of land minus all energy inputs to produce a fuel shows wide variation”


Efficiency comparisons1

Efficiency Comparisons

BioGas Electricity (corn)

Ethanol From Grain

Biodiesel (rapseed)

2nd Generation Biofuels (FT)

BioGas as Traffic Fuel (corn)

BioGas CHP (corn)

Short Rotation Forestry

(Direct Combustion)

0

50

100

150

200

Net Energy Yield (GJ/ha)

1GJ = 950,000BTU = 278 kWh

Bio-Trend Systems Inc.


Efficiency cost comparisons

Efficiency + Cost Comparisons

  • Why not use biomass options for electricity production, car fuels and heating?

  • Unfortunately, there is not sufficient quantity to serve all 3 markets.

  • Strive for maximum net energy at lowest cost, right?

  • Keep a close eye on pricing trends and subsidies for alternatives relevant to your needs.

Bio-Trend Systems Inc.


Efficiency comparisons biomass to heat

Efficiency Comparisons: Biomass to Heat

Minimum

80

Maximum

% Energy Loss

In Converting

Biomass

40

0

PelletsElectricityBiofuels (FT)

Subsidy/MW

In Canada Dollars

75

Minimum

Maximum

150

Bio-Trend Systems Inc.


Efficiency comparisons2

Efficiency Comparisons

  • Comparison: Energy loss and subsidy distribution are closely linked.

  • Why do the most inefficient energy systems get the highest subsidy??......OUR tax dollars

  • Note:

    • A 10 kW electric “heating” system can be replaced by a simple pellet stove (efficiency >90%) for $3,000

    • Client cost = $105/MW versus $242/MW for direct heating with electricity

  • Producing electricity from biomass without using the heat is the most inefficient use of primary energy……

    And there is MORE


We need to change our energy use patterns

We Need to Change Our Energy Use Patterns

Transport

Oil

Gas

Heating

Cooling

Electricity

Hydro

Wind

Solar-E

Light

Information

Power

Solar-H

Biomass

Inefficient

Efficient

Bio-Trend Systems Inc.


Technology

Technology


Fire wood

Fire Wood

Free Standing

Outdoor – Space & Water Heat

Insert

Bio-Trend Systems Inc.


Pellets

Pellets

Free Standing

Furnace/Boiler with

Auto-Feed

Bio-Trend Systems Inc.


Bio gas

Bio-Gas

Anerobic

Fermentation

Gasification

Close-Coupled

Typically Animal

Waste

Typically Plant or

Recycled Waste


Anaerobic digestion cow power

Anaerobic Digestion“Cow Power”

Bio-Trend Systems Inc.


Gasification hot air

Gasification“Hot Air”

Tars & Other

Particulates

Gas

Clean-up

# 1

Gas

Clean-up

# 2

Catalyst

Treatment

Alcohols

Combustion

&

Gasification

Gas

Separation

GasTurbine

Waste

Heat

Boiler

Ash Waste

Steam

Turbine

Biomass

MSW

Note: “Gasifiers” that use the

gas internally (close-coupled)

are,“technically”, combustion

units.

Bio-Trend Systems Inc.


Bio liquids

Bio-Liquids

  • Acidic/Corrosive

  • 25% Water

  • Biphasic

  • Heated Storage

  • 8.0 K BTU/lb

  • Heavy Odor

  • Not miscible in oil

Fast Pyrolysis

Liquid

Transportable, Modular and

Remote Access

Bio-Trend Systems Inc.


Hi value hi return waste remediation energy production

Hi Value – Hi ReturnWaste Remediation + Energy Production

Carbon

Black

Oil from

Tires

Oil from

Mixed Plastic

  • Miscible in oil

  • Less than .05% Water

  • Minimal Odor

  • 18.0 K BTU/lb

  • pH neutral

  • Stores well

Comparable to

#1 Fuel Oil

Comparable to

#2 Fuel Oil

Steel

Belts

Bio-Trend Systems Inc.


Realistic burning options for today

Realistic Burning OptionsforToday


Market ready options

Market Ready Options

  • Firewood

    • Wood Stove/Boiler:

      • In home – space heat. Basic combustion unit

      • In yard – space and/or water heat. Combustion or Close-Coupled Gasifer)

      • Lower cost, particularly using family labor

    • Suited for folks with time they can dedicate to bucking, splitting, stacking and lugging, lugging and stacking, cleaning house, etc.

  • Pellets (Wood or Grain)

    • Pellet Stove: Space Heat

      • Cleaner, less ash/particulates, pellet supply, pellet quality (white vs. brown)

    • Pellet Furnace: Space and/or Water Heat

      • Buildings between 2,500 to 50,000 sq ft

      • Heating capacity less than 800 kW (Chips best for 800kW, or larger)

  • Examples

    • Home: 2,000 sq. ft.  60,000 BTU (17.6 kWh/day) (Pellet Stove)

    • Small: 12,000 sq. ft.  420,000 BTU (123 kWh/day) (Pellet Furnace)

    • Medium: 105, 000 sq. ft.  2,500,000 BTU (Chip Boiler)

Bio-Trend Systems Inc.


Close up living with wood

Close-up – Living with Wood

  • Northern Ontario Home – 3,000 sq. ft. – Two wood stoves

  • Tandum Load = 22 face cords = $700 (annual)

  • Saw = $600 (10 year life)

  • Bucking and Stacking = 10 days, 1 person = $1,000, or in-kind

  • Chains, Chain oil, Gas, Maintenance, etc. = $250 (annual)

  • Splitter + 2 people for 2 days = $340, or in-kind

  • Hauling and Stacking – 2 people = $200, or in-kind

  • Daily hauling from wood pile to house = In-kind

  • Ash removal – 1 person once a week = In-kind

  • Chimney cleaning – 1 person twice a year = $200, or in-kind

  • Comfort - Priceless

    Note: Assumes neighborhood labor…..kids at 10 bucks an hour

Bio-Trend Systems Inc.


Household consumption

Household Consumption

Bio-Trend Systems Inc.


End we have choices

END  We Have Choices

UNCONTROLLED

CONTROLLED ANDRECOVERED

Wood

Pellets

Liquid

Bio-Trend Systems Inc.


Conversion factors

Conversion Factors

  • Wood Chip Volume

    • 1 Green Ton (GT) = 1 M3 = 2,000 pounds

    • 1 Cord = 2,500 pounds = 1.25 Green Tons

  • Transportation Factors

    • 1 Chip Van = 25 GT = 1 Standard Log Truck = 10 Cords

  • Electricity Factors

    • 1 MW (MW = Million Watts)  Power for 750 to 1000 homes annually

  • Thermal Energy Factors

    • 1 Therm = 100,000 BTU (or about 100 cu ft of natural gas)

    • 1 Ton of Woody Fuel = 15.7 Million BTU or 157 Therms

    • 1 Ton of Wood Pellets = 15.6 Million BTU or 156 Therms

    • 15.6 Million BTU’s would service a 1.91 Million Sq. Ft. Building


Renewable energy workshop

  • 1MW = 3.4 million BTU  service 750 to 1000 homes

  • 1kW = 3,400 BTU

  • 25 kW = 140,000 BTU  service 18 to 25 homes

  • 100 kW = 340,000 BTU  service 75 to 100 homes


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