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TQM. Total Quality Management. What Is Quality?. “The degree of excellence of a thing” (Webster’s Dictionary) “The totality of features and characteristics that satisfy needs” ( ASQC) Fitness for use. Ch 3 - 2. Dimensions Of Product Quality (Garvin). 1. Performance

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Tqm

TQM

Total Quality Management


What is quality

What Is Quality?

  • “The degree of excellence of a thing” (Webster’s Dictionary)

  • “The totality of features and characteristics that satisfy needs” ( ASQC)

  • Fitness for use

Ch 3 - 2


Dimensions of product quality garvin

Dimensions Of Product Quality (Garvin)

1. Performance

  • basic operating characteristics

    2. Features

  • “extra” items added to basic features

    3. Reliability

  • probability product will operate over time

Ch 3 - 3


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4. Conformance

  • meeting pre-established standards

    5. Durability

  • life span before replacement

    6. Serviceability

  • ease of getting repairs, speed & competence of repairs

Ch 3 - 4


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7. Aesthetics

  • look, feel, sound, smell or taste

    8. Safety

  • freedom from injury or harm

    9. Other perceptions

  • subjective perceptions based on brand name, advertising, etc

Ch 3 - 5


Service quality

Service Quality

1. Time & Timeliness

  • customer waiting time, completed on time

    2. Completeness

  • customer gets all they asked for

    3. Courtesy

  • treatment by employees

Ch 3 - 6


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4. Consistency

  • same level of service for all customers

    5. Accessibility & Convenience

  • ease of obtaining service

    6. Accuracy

  • performed right every time

    7. Responsiveness

  • reactions to unusual situations

Ch 3 - 7


Quality of conformance

Quality Of Conformance

  • Ensuring product or service produced according to design

  • Depends on

    • design of production process

    • performance of machinery

    • materials

    • training

Ch 3 - 8


Quality of design

Quality of Design

  • Consumers’ perception of value

  • May be function of price


Tqm

The Meaning of Quality

Producer’s Perspective

Consumer’s Perspective

Quality of Conformance

Quality of Design

Production

Marketing

  • Quality characteristics

  • Price

  • Conformance to

  • specifications

  • Cost

Fitness for

Consumer Use

Ch 3 - 9


Quality philosophers

Quality Philosophers

  • Walter Shewhart

  • W. Edwards Deming

  • Joseph Juran

  • Philip Crosby

  • Armand Feigenbaum

Ch 3 - 10


Deming s 14 points

Deming’s 14 Points

1. Create constancy of purpose

2. Adopt philosophy of prevention

3. Cease mass inspection

4. Select a few suppliers based on quality

5. Constantly improve system and workers

6. Institute worker training

Ch 3 - 11


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7. Instill leadership among supervisors

8. Eliminate fear among employees

9. Eliminate barriers between departments

10. Eliminate slogans

11. Remove numerical quotas

12. Enhance worker pride

13. Institute vigorous training & education programs

14. Implement these 13 points

Ch 3 - 12


The deming wheel or p d c a cycle

The Deming Wheel(or P-D-C-A Cycle)

Identify problem

Develop plan for

improvement

1. Plan

Institutionalize

improvement

Continue cycle

4. Act

Implement plan on

test basis

2. Do

3. Study / Check

Is the plan working

Ch 3 - 13


Tqm

Total Quality Management (TQM)Defined

  • Total quality management is defined as managing the entire organization so that it excels on all dimensions of products and services that are important to the customer.


Total quality management

Total Quality Management

1. Customer defined quality

2. Top management leadership

3. Quality as a strategic issue

4. All employees responsible for quality

5. Continuous improvement

6. Shared problem solving

7. Statistical quality control

8. Training & education for all employees

Ch 3 - 14


Tqm throughout the organization

TQM Throughout The Organization

  • Marketing, sales, R&D

  • Engineering

  • Purchasing

  • Personnel

  • Management

  • Packing, storing, shipping

  • Customer service

Ch 3 - 15


Strategic implications of tqm

Strategic Implications Of TQM

  • Quality is key to effective strategy

  • Clear strategic goal, vision, mission

  • High quality goals

  • Operational plans & policies

  • Feedback mechanism

  • Strong leadership

Ch 3 - 16


Tqm in service companies

TQM In Service Companies

  • Inputs similar to manufacturing

  • Processes & outputs are different

  • Services tend to be labor intensive

  • Quality measurement is harder

  • Timeliness is important measure

  • TQM principles apply to services

Ch 3 - 17


Cost of quality

Cost Of Quality

  • Cost of achieving good quality

    • Prevention- e.g. training, process modification.

    • Appraisal - to ensure acceptability e.g. inspection, testing.

    • Cost of poor quality

    • Internal failure costs - e.g. scrap,rework, repair

    • External failure costs - e.g. product repair, loss of goodwill, warrantees, handling complaints.

Ch 3 - 18


Quality is

Quality Is...

  • An important determinant of business profitability

  • Positively & significantly related to higher return on investment

Ch 3 - 22


Quality and productivity

Quality And Productivity

  • Productivity = output / input

  • Fewer defects increase output

  • Quality improvement reduces inputs

Ch 3 - 23


Employees quality improvement

Employees & Quality Improvement

  • Quality circles

  • Employee suggestions

  • Process improvement teams

  • Self-managed work teams

Ch 3 - 35


The quality circle process

The Quality Circle Process

Ch 3 - 36


Seven quality control tools

Seven Quality Control Tools

1. Pareto analysis

2. Flowcharts

3. Check sheets

4. Histograms

5. Scatter diagrams

6. Control charts

7. Fishbone diagram

Ch 3 - 37


A pareto chart

70

60

50

40

30

20

10

0

A Pareto Chart

(64)

Percent from each cause

(13)

(10)

(6)

(3)

(2)

(2)

Poor Design

Defective parts

Operator errors

Machine calibrations

Defective materials

Surface abrasions

Wrong dimensions

Causes of poor quality

Ch 3 - 38


A flowchart

A Flowchart

Ch 3 - 39


Check sheet

COMPONENTS REPLACED BY LAB

TIME PERIOD: 22 Feb to 27 Feb 1998

REPAIR TECHNICIAN: Bob

TV SET MODEL 1013

Integrated Circuits||||

Capacitors|||| |||| |||| |||| |||| ||

Resistors||

Transformers||||

Commands

CRT|

Check Sheet

Ch 3 - 40


Histogram

40

35

30

25

20

15

10

5

0

1 2 6 13 10 16 19 17 12 16 20 17 13 5 6 2 1

Histogram

Ch 3 - 41


Scatter diagram

Scatter Diagram

.

Ch 3 - 42


Control chart

27

24

UCL = 23.35

21

c = 12.67

18

15

Number of defects

12

9

6

LCL = 1.99

3

2

4

6

8

10

12

14

16

Sample number

Control Chart

Ch 3 - 43


Fishbone diagram

Fishbone Diagram

Measurement

Human

Machines

Out of adjustment

Faulty testing equipment

Poor supervision

Tooling problems

Incorrect specifications

Lack of concentration

Improper methods

Old/worn

Inadequate training

Quality

Problem

Inaccurate

temperature

control

Defective from vendor

Poor process design

Ineffective quality

management

Not to specifications

Dust and Dirt

Deficiencies

in product design

Material-

handling problems

Environment

Materials

Process

Ch 3 - 44


Quality awards and certifications

Quality Awards And Certifications

  • The Malcolm Baldrige Award

  • The Deming Prize

  • Industry, regional, and company awards

    • Institute of Industrial Engineers

    • NASA

    • European Quality Award

Ch 3 - 45


Iso 9000 categories

ISO 9000 Categories

  • ISO 9001 ~ Suppliers and Designers

  • ISO 9002 ~ Production

  • ISO 9003 ~ Inspection and Test

  • ISO 9004 ~ Quality Management

Ch 3 - 46


Implications of iso 9000

Implications Of ISO 9000

  • Truly international in scope

  • Certification required by many foreign firms

  • U.S. firms export > $100 billion/yr to Europe

  • Adopted by U.S. Navy, DuPont, 3M, AT&T, & others

Ch 3 - 47


Iso accreditation

ISO Accreditation

  • European registration

    • 3rd party registrar assesses quality program

    • European Conformity (CE) mark authorized

  • United States 3rd party registrars

    • American National Standards Institute (ANSI)

    • American Society for Quality Control (ASQC)

    • Registrar Accreditation Board (RAB)

Ch 3 - 48


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