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SOCIAL INFLUENCES C hapter 9. Pages 294-319. Social Psychology. Looks at how people think about, interact with, influence and are influenced by the thoughts, feelings and behaviours of other people. Investigates social influences. BUT WHAT ARE SOCIAL INFLUENCES???????. Social Influence.

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Social influences c hapter 9

SOCIAL INFLUENCESChapter 9

Pages 294-319


Social psychology
Social Psychology

  • Looks at how people think about, interact with, influence and are influenced by the thoughts, feelings and behaviours of other people.

  • Investigates social influences.

    BUT WHAT ARE SOCIAL INFLUENCES???????


Social influence
Social Influence

  • The ways in which people alter their behaviours or attitudes because of the influence of others, either directly or indirectly.

    • Who influences you??


The effects of status and power within groups
The effects of status and power within groups.

First of all what is a group?

  • Needs to have 2 or more people who influence or have the potential to influence

  • Have a common goal/ interest

  • Members must identify themselves as belonging to that group.

    What are some examples of groups?


Collective aggregate
Collective/Aggregate

  • A group of people that have LITTLE influence on each other and do not interact with each other.

  • E.g. people watching the same movie in a cinema.


Status power
Status & Power

  • Status: Social standing.

    The importance of a group member’s position in that group, as perceived by other members of the group. Usually in a group there is a sort of leader.

    Who’s the leader in your friendship group?

  • Power: an individuals ability to control or strongly influence the thoughts, feelings and behaviour of another person/group. There are different types of power.

  • Coercive

  • Expert

  • Informational copy down the definitions and

  • Legitimate examples on page 297.

  • Referent

  • reward


Zimbardo s prison experiment
ZIMBARDO’s prison experiment

  • Phillip Zimbardo looked at the effect of status and power (role) on our behaviour.

  • He set up a simulated prison environment at Stanford University, California.

  • He wanted to know why we act differently in different situations.

  • Prisoners had no power or status where as the guards had all the power and status.

  • Fundamental attribution error: tendency to claim that our behaviour is due to the situation rather than our personality

  • Lets read page 299-301

    http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=b8McGyYAwcU&feature=related

    5min

    http://video.google.com/videoplay?docid=677084988379129606#

    29min documentary


Stanley milgram
Stanley Milgram

  • Looked at obedience

    Obedience (a type of compliance whereby the individual complies with a demand, rather than a request)

    Why did Nazi soldiers kill so many people? Were they just obeying orders? Or were they cold blooded killers?

  • Would people obey an authority figure even though they would be inflicting harm on another person.

  • Milgram’s experiment was replicable which means that it can easily be repeated by another researcher.

  • Lets read page 302-306

    http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=BcvSNg0HZwk

    6 min


Factors affecting obedience
Factors affecting obedience..

  • Social proximity: how close the teacher and the experimenter were to each other plays a part . The closer they were the more obedient the participant. However the closer the participant was to the learner (person being shocked) the less likely they were to obey.

  • Legitimacy of the authority figure: When Milgram said that he was a professor at a prestigious university participants obeys compared to when he said he was a researcher. What he wore also influenced their compliance.

  • Group pressure: when there were 3 teachers (one of which was the participant) if 2 teachers refused to participate any longer then the 3rd teacher (participant) would also not obey the experimenters orders. When the 2 teachers were completely in support the experimenters commands then the 3rd teacher (participant) obeyed. Obedience levels rose from 65%-72.5%.

    Group Pressure was more influential compared to social proximity and legitimacy of the authority figure.


Milgram’s Shock Experiment

  • What was the IV & DV?

  • INDEPENDENT VARIABLE??? What is being manipulated?

  • DEPENDENT VARIABLE?? What is being measured


Milgram s shock experiment
Milgram’s Shock Experiment

  • Independent Variable: NONE.

    (proximity, legitimacy of authority)??

  • Dependent Variable: Level of shock at which teacher breaks off. Obedience level..


Ethical principles in milgram s experiment
Ethical principles in Milgram’s experiment..

  • Deception: deliberately misleading participants about the true nature of the experiment.

    How did Milgram do this??

  • Debriefing: fully informing participants about all aspects of the study after its completion to ensure that the participant has not experienced any harm.

    How was this done by Milgram?

  • Withdrawal Rights: the freedom to discontinue participation in the experiment at any time.

    Did Milgram allow this?



Ash s conformity study
Ash’s Conformity Study imitate each other.

Conformity (a behaviour that is motivated by pressure from other members of a group. Changing our thoughts, feelings and behaviours so that they align with another persons thoughts feelings and behaviours even if we don’t agree with them) we do this because we want to fit in.

HAVE YOU EVER CONFORMED? How?

Lets read pages 311-313

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=TYIh4MkcfJA

4 min


Factors affecting conformity
Factors affecting Conformity imitate each other.

  • Normative influence: we conform because we want to be liked by others and we assume that by conforming they will like us more.

  • Culture: your culture determines how likely you are to conform. Hong Kong, Fiji, Japan had higher levels of conformity compared to USA and France.

  • Informational influence: conforming because you believe the information that is being presented to you in true.

  • Unanimity: if the majority is unanimous (all agree/disagree) then we experience a great pressure to conform.

  • Group size: the bigger the group the more likely you are to conform.

  • Deindividuation: when you act a certain way because you can hide in the safety of numbers that the group provides.

  • Social learning theory: all our behaviours are learned and occur as a result of either being punished or rewarded in the past. We have learned to conform because it has positive benefits so we repeat the behaviour and keep conforming.


Group influence on behaviour
Group Influence on behaviour imitate each other.

  • Peer group: your group of friends. Similar age and have the same interests and goals. You are very influenced by your peers opinions and actions.

  • Peer pressure: pressure experienced that comes from wanting to fit in with the actions and thoughts of your friends (peers). Leads you to behave in ways that you wouldn’t normally do if you were alone.

    What are some examples? What have you been peer pressured into doing/ trying?


Risk taking behaviour
Risk taking behaviour imitate each other.

  • Any activity that has potentially negative consequences, either physically or psychologically .


H omework
H imitate each other.omework

  • Complete Activities

    9.1

    9.2

    9.3 questions 6,7,10,11

    9.9

    9.11


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