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Age of the Reformation II. Luther and Erasmus: The reformation begins. Martin. Luder Ludher Lutter Luttherr Luther. Martin Luther 1483-1546. Born Nov. 10 1483 into a peasant family The son of a farmer turned miner and a hard working mother

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Age of the reformation ii

Age of the Reformation II

Luther and Erasmus:

The reformation begins







Martin luther 1483 1546
Martin Luther 1483-1546

  • Born Nov. 10 1483 into a peasant family

  • The son of a farmer turned miner and a hard working mother

  • Was raised with stern discipline as well as a chatechismal education

  • At 14 he supported himself by singing in the streets

  • He gained the notice/patronage of Frau Ursula Cota “on account of his hearty singing and praying”

Martin luther 1483 15461
Martin Luther 1483-1546

  • At 18 he enrolled in the University of Erfurt, then one of the top universities in Germany

  • 1502 Bachelor of Arts, 1505 a Master of Arts (Ph.D equivalent)

  • Luther then prepared himself as his father wished to go to Law School

  • 1505 His friend Alexius died (lightning or duel)

  • July 1505 Caught in a thunderstorm and cried out to St. Ann, promising monkdom in exchange for rescue

Martin luther 1483 15462
Martin Luther 1483-1546

  • July 17, Luther joins an Augustinian Convent at Erfurt

  • He became obsessed with the assurance of his salvation and constantly aware of his sin

  • Held strictly to catholic doctrine, including excessive worship of the Virgin Mary

  • Confessed at least once a week to the eventual annoyance of his confessor

  • His mentor Staupitz pointed him towards the cross and grace

Martin luther 1483 15463
Martin Luther 1483-1546

  • Luther continually pondered the meaning of Romans 1:17

  • Was ordained in 1507 and gave his first mass, almost fainting at the altar

  • 1510 Luther made a pilgrimage to Rome

  • Arrived hailing “Thrice Holy Rome”

  • He ran to visit all the shrines, and sought the promised forgiveness in the climbing of the Scala Santa on his knees

Luther in rome 1510
Luther in Rome 1510

  • He became severely disillusioned with Rome due to all its excesses

  • Speedy masses, irreverent consecration, mockery of honest Christians

  • “if there was a hell, Rome was built on it”

  • “Rome, once the holiest city is now the worst”

  • Afterwards(1511) Luther moved the the Augustinian convent of Wittenberg and became a professor

Martin luther 1483 15464
Martin Luther 1483-1546

  • The building of St. Peter’s Dome was begun in 1506 by Pope Julian II using indulgences as a means to pay for the expenses (it was finally completed in 1626)

  • Indulgences were technically the removal of the temporal consequences of sin, but not a route to salvation

  • Johann Tetzel was the salesman for Indulgences in the Wittenberg area

Martin luther 1483 15465
Martin Luther 1483-1546

  • The continual sale of indulgences drove Luther to write the 95 Theses

  • Oct. 31 1517 Luther posts the Theses on the door of the Wittenberg chapel

  • The 95 Theses were posted as a challenge to debate not as a breech with the Church

The 95 theses
The 95 Theses

  • Luther’s protest against the abuse of indulgences

  • 3 Main points

    • Indulgences are ineffective

    • The Pope is good

    • Justification by faith in Christ

Leipzig disputation 1519
Leipzig Disputation 1519

  • Initial papal reaction was to ignore the Theses

  • Many disputes and callings of heretic later comes the Leipzig Disputation

  • Luther vs. Dr. Eck (Johann Mair)

  • In the Leipzig Disputation Luther realized he didn’t hold with the authority of the Church or Pope

  • Both claimed victory

  • Luther gives up on reform and starts the Reformation

Luther attacks 1520
Luther Attacks 1520

  • Luther begins his break with the church by appealing to the German Princes for protection

  • He follows up by writing many vicious anti-papal/Roman Catholic works

  • Babylonian Captivity of the church being one of the chief of his polemics addressing

    • Universality of the cup

    • Proper communion

    • Baptism

    • Number of sacraments (Baptism and Bread only)

Martin luther 1483 15466
Martin Luther 1483-1546

  • Luther is Shortly thereafter given a bull of Excommunication

  • He responds by writing “Against the Bull of Antichrist” and calling the pope a heretic then burns the Bull

  • Luther is now hunted by the papacy as a heretic and flees to various princes for protection

Diet of worms 1521
Diet of Worms 1521

  • Emperor Charles V calls the Diet of Worms to try and settle the issue of Luther

  • Jerome Aleander represented the papacy

  • Luther arrives with great pomp and celebration

  • He is asked to acknowledge his works and recant them

  • He asks quietly for a day to consider

Diet of worms 15211
Diet of Worms 1521

  • He returns the next day and strongly affirms all of his writings

  • He then proceeds to call both pope and councils fallible forever confirming his status as a heretic

  • The papists claim victory over Martin but the promised safe conduct of Charles V is surprisingly kept and arch-heretic Martin lived to see another day

Peasants war 1523 25
Peasants War 1523-25

  • The Peasants grew tired of being slaves and wanted better living conditions and some measure of autonomy

  • They teamed up with radical protestants and rebelled against the princes

  • Luther condemned the rebellion and told the princes to quash it

  • The princes took his advice and the rebellion stopped

Martin luther 1483 15467
Martin Luther 1483-1546

  • Luther got married to Catharina von Boren

  • He loved his Katie much

  • He did lots of other reformation stuff like translating the bible

  • He died in Eisleben in Prussian Saxony Feb. 18, 1546

  • He liked talking about farts

Desiderius erasmus1466 1536
Desiderius Erasmus1466-1536

  • Born out of wedlock to a Dutch priest Gerard and a physicians daughter Margaret

  • After his mother died his guardians stole his inheritance and forced him into a monastery

  • 1486-1491 was a monk and became thoroughly disgusted with the institution

  • Obtained a bishops patronage and gained liscensce to become a priest and flee the monastery

  • Studied at the universties of Paris and Orleans

Desiderius erasmus1466 15361
Desiderius Erasmus1466-1536

  • He survived mainly by patronage living off of the many “gifts” given to him for his clever writing

  • Studied classics incessantly and was a deep thinker, called the father of Christian Humanism

  • Wrote prolifically, including many works which criticized monks, priests, and the papacy

  • He was continually in and out of favor with the papacy

Desiderius erasmus1466 15362
Desiderius Erasmus1466-1536

  • He loved peace, but also morality and wanted true reform within the church

  • Lived Latin, he spoke very little of any other language including his native Dutch

  • Courted the favor of Pope Leo X, but never stopped criticizing the immoral things he did

  • Took no sides in the Protestant/Catholic debate resulting in him being to Protestant to be Catholic and too Catholic to be Protestant

Desiderius erasmus1466 15363
Desiderius Erasmus1466-1536

  • Luther and many other reformers looked to Erasmus for teaching though he conflicted with Luther often

  • Luther was said to have “hatched the egg laid by Erasmus”

  • Erasmus and Luther debated heatedly over the issue of Free Will, neither ever admitting the other was right

  • He died Feb. 12 1536 without a priest repeating “O Jesus, have mercy; Lord, deliver me; Lord make an end’ Lord, have mercy upon me!”