FDTD Analysis of the Human Body Influence on a Bluetooth Link Inside a Vehicle
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FDTD Analysis of the Human Body Influence on a Bluetooth Link Inside a Vehicle. Gabriel Anzaldi, Marcos Quilez, Pere J. Riu, Ferran Silva. Electromagnetic Compatibility Group (GCEM) Technical University of Catalonia (UPC), Barcelona, Spain. OUTLINE. Introduction Modeling Strategy

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FDTD Analysis of the Human Body Influence on a Bluetooth Link Inside a Vehicle

Gabriel Anzaldi, Marcos Quilez, Pere J. Riu, Ferran Silva

Electromagnetic Compatibility Group (GCEM)

Technical University of Catalonia (UPC), Barcelona, Spain


OUTLINE Link Inside a Vehicle

  • Introduction

  • Modeling Strategy

  • FDTD models

  • Validation Setup

  • Results

  • Conclusions


INTRODUCTION Link Inside a Vehicle

  • Why electromagnetic numerical simulation?

  • Low computational cost, is it possible?

  • Why real car representation?

  • Vehicle interior scenario


6.5V/m Link Inside a Vehicle

140V/m

140V/m

P7

41V/m

P7

EXTERIOR SETUPS

INTERIOR SETUPS

INTRODUCTION

GSM 1800 RADIATION BEHAVIOR

Near Field Simulation Results


INTRODUCTION Link Inside a Vehicle

GSM-PCS 1.8 GHz RADIATION BEHAVIOR

Far Field Simulation Results

Exterior

Source

Interior

Source


4 Link Inside a Vehicle

5

6

1

2

3

Wire

8

9

7

INTRODUCTION

SINGLE WIRE RADIATION @ 100 MHz

5 V/m

0 V/m


Wire 1 Link Inside a Vehicle

Wire 2

Wire 3

SUBMESHED REGIONS

Wire 4

INTRODUCTION

SIMPLE HARNESS COUPLING @ 100 MHz

  • Wires modelled implementing the following techniques:

  • Thin wire model.

  • Thin wire magnetic field correction.

  • Sub cell technique.

  • Sub cell technique + centering technique.

  • Sub cell technique + centering technique + FDTD out-code mesh optimization.

Results Summary


INTRODUCTION Link Inside a Vehicle

GSM 900 SAR INSIDE VEHICLE


GPS Link Inside a Vehicle

Bluetooth link

PDA

GPS Rx

INTRODUCTION

BLUETOOTH RF CHANNEL WITH HUMAN PRESENCE INSIDE DE VEHICLE


MODELING STRATEGY Link Inside a Vehicle

MCD Optimization

FDTD Model Optimization

FDTD rules for large scale simulation.


MODELING STRATEGY Link Inside a Vehicle

CAD MODELS

  • DXF CAD from Crash

edited and completed

  • Simplified as function of the specific case of study

  • DXF Blocks according to mesh size


MODELING STRATEGY Link Inside a Vehicle

FDTD MODEL

Model Obtained after the import process

Model Cleaned

Spurious Cells

Final Electromagnetic Model


MODELING STRATEGY Link Inside a Vehicle

FDTD LARGE SCALE RULES

Centring

scaling the free space values of 0 and 0

+

Selective Grid Resolution

Sub meshing

/10, /20 or more

over the interest region


Coarse Link Inside a Vehicle Region

TransitionRegion

SensitiveRegion

MODELING STRATEGY

FDTD LARGE SCALE RULES

Sub meshing

Non Physical Refraction


FDTD MODELS Link Inside a Vehicle

Human CAD model edit


FDTD MODELS Link Inside a Vehicle

DXF

FDTD


FDTD MODELS Link Inside a Vehicle

Practicalinformation

  • Code: LC, freely distributed by Cray Research Inc.

  • Workstation: Dual Pro. 2.2 GHz i686 (P-III Xeon) 2 Gbytes RAM

  • Operating system: SMP Linux Red Hat 7.3

  • The overall computational space [4.644x2.16x1.764] m3

  • Simulation space truncated using MUR ABCs.

  • Maximum memory required was 1791 Mbytes

  • maximum simulation time: 5/10 hours at 300 MFlops

  • convergence was checked for all cases (5000/10000 t)

  • c=36mm, 1=18mm, 2=9mm and s=3mm.


FREE SPACE UPPER VIEW Link Inside a Vehicle

COARSE

COARSE

T

TRANSITION (T)

S

T

COARSE

T

COARSE

SOURCE

PROBES

FREE SPACE LATERAL VIEW

COARSE

T

COARSE

T

T

S

COARSE

COARSE

T

FDTD MODELS


VALIDATION Link Inside a Vehicle

Anechoic Chamber

0.25 m

HI-6005

Tx

Rx


PROBE 1 Link Inside a Vehicle

PROBE 2

SOURCE

RESULTS

Free Space (FS)

Human-Vehicle (HV)

Vehicle (V)


RESULTS Link Inside a Vehicle


E-Field plane probe Link Inside a Vehicle

RESULTS

FS

HV

V

1

0


CONCLUSIONS Link Inside a Vehicle

  • Electromagnetic simulations in (large) automotive environments, using low cost computational tools are practically possible.

  • The agreement between calculations and measurements is satisfactory

  • Electric field intensity varies a lot depending on source location and environment conditions for interior sources where multipath propagation, reflections and scattering are present.

  • Numerical methods can be applied to both radiation and couplingproblems inside a vehicle. Computation of voltages induced on wires or transmission lines produced by electromagnetic sources in the near field of the receiving wire and under the singular conditions of an almost-closed structure are possible.

  • Any FDTD code can produce useful results, that can be compared to experimental measurements, if simple rules are used for the modelling and theuncertaintyof the measurements is taken into account for the comparison.


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