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FDTD Analysis of the Human Body Influence on a Bluetooth Link Inside a Vehicle. Gabriel Anzaldi, Marcos Quilez, Pere J. Riu, Ferran Silva. Electromagnetic Compatibility Group (GCEM) Technical University of Catalonia (UPC), Barcelona, Spain. OUTLINE. Introduction Modeling Strategy

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slide1

FDTD Analysis of the Human Body Influence on a Bluetooth Link Inside a Vehicle

Gabriel Anzaldi, Marcos Quilez, Pere J. Riu, Ferran Silva

Electromagnetic Compatibility Group (GCEM)

Technical University of Catalonia (UPC), Barcelona, Spain

slide2

OUTLINE

  • Introduction
  • Modeling Strategy
  • FDTD models
  • Validation Setup
  • Results
  • Conclusions
slide3

INTRODUCTION

  • Why electromagnetic numerical simulation?
  • Low computational cost, is it possible?
  • Why real car representation?
  • Vehicle interior scenario
slide4

6.5V/m

140V/m

140V/m

P7

41V/m

P7

EXTERIOR SETUPS

INTERIOR SETUPS

INTRODUCTION

GSM 1800 RADIATION BEHAVIOR

Near Field Simulation Results

slide5

INTRODUCTION

GSM-PCS 1.8 GHz RADIATION BEHAVIOR

Far Field Simulation Results

Exterior

Source

Interior

Source

slide6

4

5

6

1

2

3

Wire

8

9

7

INTRODUCTION

SINGLE WIRE RADIATION @ 100 MHz

5 V/m

0 V/m

slide7

Wire 1

Wire 2

Wire 3

SUBMESHED REGIONS

Wire 4

INTRODUCTION

SIMPLE HARNESS COUPLING @ 100 MHz

  • Wires modelled implementing the following techniques:
  • Thin wire model.
  • Thin wire magnetic field correction.
  • Sub cell technique.
  • Sub cell technique + centering technique.
  • Sub cell technique + centering technique + FDTD out-code mesh optimization.

Results Summary

slide8

INTRODUCTION

GSM 900 SAR INSIDE VEHICLE

slide9

GPS

Bluetooth link

PDA

GPS Rx

INTRODUCTION

BLUETOOTH RF CHANNEL WITH HUMAN PRESENCE INSIDE DE VEHICLE

slide10

MODELING STRATEGY

MCD Optimization

FDTD Model Optimization

FDTD rules for large scale simulation.

slide11

MODELING STRATEGY

CAD MODELS

  • DXF CAD from Crash

edited and completed

  • Simplified as function of the specific case of study
  • DXF Blocks according to mesh size
slide12

MODELING STRATEGY

FDTD MODEL

Model Obtained after the import process

Model Cleaned

Spurious Cells

Final Electromagnetic Model

slide13

MODELING STRATEGY

FDTD LARGE SCALE RULES

Centring

scaling the free space values of 0 and 0

+

Selective Grid Resolution

Sub meshing

/10, /20 or more

over the interest region

slide14

CoarseRegion

TransitionRegion

SensitiveRegion

MODELING STRATEGY

FDTD LARGE SCALE RULES

Sub meshing

Non Physical Refraction

slide15

FDTD MODELS

Human CAD model edit

slide17

FDTD MODELS

Practicalinformation

  • Code: LC, freely distributed by Cray Research Inc.
  • Workstation: Dual Pro. 2.2 GHz i686 (P-III Xeon) 2 Gbytes RAM
  • Operating system: SMP Linux Red Hat 7.3
  • The overall computational space [4.644x2.16x1.764] m3
  • Simulation space truncated using MUR ABCs.
  • Maximum memory required was 1791 Mbytes
  • maximum simulation time: 5/10 hours at 300 MFlops
  • convergence was checked for all cases (5000/10000 t)
  • c=36mm, 1=18mm, 2=9mm and s=3mm.
slide18

FREE SPACE UPPER VIEW

COARSE

COARSE

T

TRANSITION (T)

S

T

COARSE

T

COARSE

SOURCE

PROBES

FREE SPACE LATERAL VIEW

COARSE

T

COARSE

T

T

S

COARSE

COARSE

T

FDTD MODELS

slide19

VALIDATION

Anechoic Chamber

0.25 m

HI-6005

Tx

Rx

slide20

PROBE 1

PROBE 2

SOURCE

RESULTS

Free Space (FS)

Human-Vehicle (HV)

Vehicle (V)

slide22

E-Field plane probe

RESULTS

FS

HV

V

1

0

slide23

CONCLUSIONS

  • Electromagnetic simulations in (large) automotive environments, using low cost computational tools are practically possible.
  • The agreement between calculations and measurements is satisfactory
  • Electric field intensity varies a lot depending on source location and environment conditions for interior sources where multipath propagation, reflections and scattering are present.
  • Numerical methods can be applied to both radiation and couplingproblems inside a vehicle. Computation of voltages induced on wires or transmission lines produced by electromagnetic sources in the near field of the receiving wire and under the singular conditions of an almost-closed structure are possible.
  • Any FDTD code can produce useful results, that can be compared to experimental measurements, if simple rules are used for the modelling and theuncertaintyof the measurements is taken into account for the comparison.
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