FDTD Analysis of the Human Body Influence on a Bluetooth Link Inside a Vehicle
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FDTD Analysis of the Human Body Influence on a Bluetooth Link Inside a Vehicle. Gabriel Anzaldi, Marcos Quilez, Pere J. Riu, Ferran Silva. Electromagnetic Compatibility Group (GCEM) Technical University of Catalonia (UPC), Barcelona, Spain. OUTLINE. Introduction Modeling Strategy

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Gabriel Anzaldi, Marcos Quilez, Pere J. Riu, Ferran Silva

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Gabriel anzaldi marcos quilez pere j riu ferran silva

FDTD Analysis of the Human Body Influence on a Bluetooth Link Inside a Vehicle

Gabriel Anzaldi, Marcos Quilez, Pere J. Riu, Ferran Silva

Electromagnetic Compatibility Group (GCEM)

Technical University of Catalonia (UPC), Barcelona, Spain


Gabriel anzaldi marcos quilez pere j riu ferran silva

OUTLINE

  • Introduction

  • Modeling Strategy

  • FDTD models

  • Validation Setup

  • Results

  • Conclusions


Gabriel anzaldi marcos quilez pere j riu ferran silva

INTRODUCTION

  • Why electromagnetic numerical simulation?

  • Low computational cost, is it possible?

  • Why real car representation?

  • Vehicle interior scenario


Gabriel anzaldi marcos quilez pere j riu ferran silva

6.5V/m

140V/m

140V/m

P7

41V/m

P7

EXTERIOR SETUPS

INTERIOR SETUPS

INTRODUCTION

GSM 1800 RADIATION BEHAVIOR

Near Field Simulation Results


Gabriel anzaldi marcos quilez pere j riu ferran silva

INTRODUCTION

GSM-PCS 1.8 GHz RADIATION BEHAVIOR

Far Field Simulation Results

Exterior

Source

Interior

Source


Gabriel anzaldi marcos quilez pere j riu ferran silva

4

5

6

1

2

3

Wire

8

9

7

INTRODUCTION

SINGLE WIRE RADIATION @ 100 MHz

5 V/m

0 V/m


Gabriel anzaldi marcos quilez pere j riu ferran silva

Wire 1

Wire 2

Wire 3

SUBMESHED REGIONS

Wire 4

INTRODUCTION

SIMPLE HARNESS COUPLING @ 100 MHz

  • Wires modelled implementing the following techniques:

  • Thin wire model.

  • Thin wire magnetic field correction.

  • Sub cell technique.

  • Sub cell technique + centering technique.

  • Sub cell technique + centering technique + FDTD out-code mesh optimization.

Results Summary


Gabriel anzaldi marcos quilez pere j riu ferran silva

INTRODUCTION

GSM 900 SAR INSIDE VEHICLE


Gabriel anzaldi marcos quilez pere j riu ferran silva

GPS

Bluetooth link

PDA

GPS Rx

INTRODUCTION

BLUETOOTH RF CHANNEL WITH HUMAN PRESENCE INSIDE DE VEHICLE


Gabriel anzaldi marcos quilez pere j riu ferran silva

MODELING STRATEGY

MCD Optimization

FDTD Model Optimization

FDTD rules for large scale simulation.


Gabriel anzaldi marcos quilez pere j riu ferran silva

MODELING STRATEGY

CAD MODELS

  • DXF CAD from Crash

edited and completed

  • Simplified as function of the specific case of study

  • DXF Blocks according to mesh size


Gabriel anzaldi marcos quilez pere j riu ferran silva

MODELING STRATEGY

FDTD MODEL

Model Obtained after the import process

Model Cleaned

Spurious Cells

Final Electromagnetic Model


Gabriel anzaldi marcos quilez pere j riu ferran silva

MODELING STRATEGY

FDTD LARGE SCALE RULES

Centring

scaling the free space values of 0 and 0

+

Selective Grid Resolution

Sub meshing

/10, /20 or more

over the interest region


Gabriel anzaldi marcos quilez pere j riu ferran silva

CoarseRegion

TransitionRegion

SensitiveRegion

MODELING STRATEGY

FDTD LARGE SCALE RULES

Sub meshing

Non Physical Refraction


Gabriel anzaldi marcos quilez pere j riu ferran silva

FDTD MODELS

Human CAD model edit


Gabriel anzaldi marcos quilez pere j riu ferran silva

FDTD MODELS

DXF

FDTD


Gabriel anzaldi marcos quilez pere j riu ferran silva

FDTD MODELS

Practicalinformation

  • Code: LC, freely distributed by Cray Research Inc.

  • Workstation: Dual Pro. 2.2 GHz i686 (P-III Xeon) 2 Gbytes RAM

  • Operating system: SMP Linux Red Hat 7.3

  • The overall computational space [4.644x2.16x1.764] m3

  • Simulation space truncated using MUR ABCs.

  • Maximum memory required was 1791 Mbytes

  • maximum simulation time: 5/10 hours at 300 MFlops

  • convergence was checked for all cases (5000/10000 t)

  • c=36mm, 1=18mm, 2=9mm and s=3mm.


Gabriel anzaldi marcos quilez pere j riu ferran silva

FREE SPACE UPPER VIEW

COARSE

COARSE

T

TRANSITION (T)

S

T

COARSE

T

COARSE

SOURCE

PROBES

FREE SPACE LATERAL VIEW

COARSE

T

COARSE

T

T

S

COARSE

COARSE

T

FDTD MODELS


Gabriel anzaldi marcos quilez pere j riu ferran silva

VALIDATION

Anechoic Chamber

0.25 m

HI-6005

Tx

Rx


Gabriel anzaldi marcos quilez pere j riu ferran silva

PROBE 1

PROBE 2

SOURCE

RESULTS

Free Space (FS)

Human-Vehicle (HV)

Vehicle (V)


Gabriel anzaldi marcos quilez pere j riu ferran silva

RESULTS


Gabriel anzaldi marcos quilez pere j riu ferran silva

E-Field plane probe

RESULTS

FS

HV

V

1

0


Gabriel anzaldi marcos quilez pere j riu ferran silva

CONCLUSIONS

  • Electromagnetic simulations in (large) automotive environments, using low cost computational tools are practically possible.

  • The agreement between calculations and measurements is satisfactory

  • Electric field intensity varies a lot depending on source location and environment conditions for interior sources where multipath propagation, reflections and scattering are present.

  • Numerical methods can be applied to both radiation and couplingproblems inside a vehicle. Computation of voltages induced on wires or transmission lines produced by electromagnetic sources in the near field of the receiving wire and under the singular conditions of an almost-closed structure are possible.

  • Any FDTD code can produce useful results, that can be compared to experimental measurements, if simple rules are used for the modelling and theuncertaintyof the measurements is taken into account for the comparison.


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