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s olar. in X -rays. ph otometer. SphinX the ideas behind the Project. Janusz Sylwester Space Research Centre, Polish Academy of Sciences, Wrocław Sergey Kuzin P.N. Lebedev Physical Institute, Moscow, RAS Yury D. Kotov MePhi, Astrophysical Laboratory, Moscow Technical University

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Sphinx the ideas behind the project

solar

in X-rays

photometer

SphinXthe ideas behind the Project

Janusz Sylwester

Space Research Centre, Polish Academy of

Sciences, Wrocław

Sergey Kuzin

P.N. Lebedev Physical Institute, Moscow, RAS

Yury D. Kotov

MePhi, Astrophysical Laboratory, Moscow Technical University

Frantisek Farnik

Astronomical Institute, Czech Academy of Sciences

FabioReale

Astronomical Observatory, Palermo Universty, Italy

First SphinX Workshop 29 – 31May, 2007, Wrocław Poland Janusz Sylwester


Sphinx aims
SphinX aims

  • Detect variability of the 0.5 keV– 12 keV solar signal (in the 0.1 – 0.01 Hz frequency range) with 1% accuracy

  • Detect variability in three sharp & narrow wavelength bands containing strong emission lines (in the sub Hz frequency range)

  • Detect changing Line-to-Continuum ratios in order to study coronal plasma composition and differential emission measure (DEM)

  • Establish absolute soft X-ray photometry standards (5 % accuracy) through calibration with the synchrotron source (BESSY-Berlin)

  • Push down detection limits in the 0.5 keV– 12 keV energy band by two orders of magnitude (respective to GOES X-ray standard photometry or RHESSI)

First SphinX Workshop 29 – 31May, 2007, Wrocław Poland Janusz Sylwester


Present low activity limitations

except Hinode and SOXS,

no instrument can measure the quiet Sun flux reliably

No clear solar signal

just orbital background

GOES 1 – 8 Å threshold

GOES 0.5 – 4 Å threshold

It is, that for the solar minimum conditions, like at present (see the 2006 March 6 example above), no positive solar soft X-ray signal can be detected - and therefore no sensible temperature and EM determinations are possible.

This will not be the case with the SphinX operational, as the expected count rate would be in the range 500 – 2000 cts/s for the corresponding activity level, somewhat depending on the coronal „quietest” Sun coronal model.

First SphinX Workshop 29 – 31May, 2007, Wrocław Poland Janusz Sylwester


Sphinx placement

A part of the science payload of the next CORONAS Solar Mission

lead by Prof. Yuri D. Kotov.

A part of the TESISTelescope & Spectrometer complex developed

at the P.N. Lebedev Physical Institute,

Moscow, PI dr. Sergey Kuzin.

SphinX placement

Launch: June - 2008

First SphinX Workshop 29 – 31May, 2007, Wrocław Poland Janusz Sylwester


CORONAS-Photon

Russian confirmed national projest + India, Ukraine, Poland

http://www.astro.mephi.ru/english/e_photon.htm

Mass ~2500 kg,

8.2 Gb/day

Pointing

Three axis stabilised in the sense that the main axis points towards the optical Sun centre within 10 arcmin box. The roll is kept constant by TESIS stellar sensors.

Orbit

Polar, circular (500 km), 95 min, semi-Sun-synchonous (82.5°), up to 20 days uninterrupted solar illumination,

passes through SAA (6 orbits/24h) and polar ovals (4 times/orbit)

Nominal mission lifetime, 3 years

First SphinX Workshop 29 – 31May, 2007, Wrocław Poland Janusz Sylwester


SphinX components

a)~alignment mirror, perpendicular to Sun direction,

b)~entrance openings covered with optical EUV stoppers - example solar ray is indicated,

c)~mechanical collimators narrowing the detectors FOV to within 2.5 degree of the Sun,

d)~the shutter motor,

e)~moving tray with the shutter and fluorescence calibration filters,

f)~three spectrophotometric detectors,

g)~electronics with microcontroller

h)~cooling heat pipe,

i)~three-narrow band filter-detector sections,

j)~pre-amplifiers, independent for each detector.

First SphinX Workshop 29 – 31May, 2007, Wrocław Poland Janusz Sylwester


Fe55

The detectors

Made by Amptek USA, pure Si 500 μm PIN

~20 mm2 aperture,

Equipped with Be 12.5 micrometer window,

Peltier-cooled, 50 deg below the support temperature

Energy resolution: 150 – 190 eV

Dynamic range: 105

Used on Mars for mineral spectroscopy

Courtesy of the University of Chicago.

First SphinX Workshop 29 – 31May, 2007, Wrocław Poland Janusz Sylwester


SphinX construction details

Input Apertures

5°FOV

limiters

Shutter motor with calibration openings

Heat sink pipe

3 detector

egineering

model

SphinX characteristics:

Mass ~ 3.5 kg, Power ~15 W, Telemetry ~ 50 MB/24hours

First SphinX Workshop 29 – 31May, 2007, Wrocław Poland Janusz Sylwester


Front apertures

  • Direct full Sun fluxes illuminate detectors through three calibrated apertures of:

  • 19.96, 0.397 and 0.0785 mm2

  • overall dynamic range

  • 7 decadesA0.1 -X20

  • Narrow-band Filter-Fluorescence unit

First SphinX Workshop 29 – 31May, 2007, Wrocław Poland Janusz Sylwester


Energy calibration through fluorescence
Energy calibration through fluorescence

Filter Mg

Filter Ti

First SphinX Workshop 29 – 31May, 2007, Wrocław Poland Janusz Sylwester


What will be measured
What will be measured?

  • Direct soft (0.5 keV– 15 keV) X-ray photons from entire visible solar corona (within 5° FOV)

    • Time & energy stamping technique (1 μs) for activity levels below B GOES class (rates: 103 - 104 /sec)

  • Photon energy spectra (0.5 keV– 15 keV) for higher activity

    • in 256 energy channels (100 times per sec)

      (rates: 102 - 103 /bin/sec)

    • Energy resolution (150-190 eV) ,depending on det. temperature

  • Calibration peaks from three fluorescence transmission filters (e.g. Mg, Ti, Cu) – for detector gain changes

  • Flare flags will be issued & transmitted to TESIS and entire CORONAS S/C including: flare phase, expected level to be reached, duration etc.

First SphinX Workshop 29 – 31May, 2007, Wrocław Poland Janusz Sylwester


Expected detector rates

Aperture D1

Aperture D2

X20, 45000 c/s

Aperture D3

Cts/s/detector

A1, 400 c/s

First SphinX Workshop 29 – 31May, 2007, Wrocław Poland Janusz Sylwester


Expected spectra results from modeling chianti
Expected spectra- results from modeling(CHIANTI)

First SphinX Workshop 29 – 31May, 2007, Wrocław Poland Janusz Sylwester


Expected spectra results from modeling chianti1
Expected spectra- results from modeling(CHIANTI)

Per 1 cm2

First SphinX Workshop 29 – 31May, 2007, Wrocław Poland Janusz Sylwester


Narrow band filter fluorescence unit ffu new measurement concept for narrow band x ray photometry
Narrow-band Filter-Fluorescence unitFFUnew measurement concept for narrow band X-ray photometry

M-class flare rates Δλ(cts/s)

Al+Mg7.95 – 9.54 Å2e4

Ti+Ca2.50 – 3.08 Å7e3

Fe+Cr1.74 – 2.07 Å3e3

Cu+Fe1.38 – 1.74 Å5e2

The higher energy part of X-ray spectrum is blocked by a filter (absorption Edge).

Fluorescence is excited above the emission edge

First SphinX Workshop 29 – 31May, 2007, Wrocław Poland Janusz Sylwester


Ffu design
FFU design

T= 3.2 MK,

EM = 5.e46 cm-3

(cts/s)

Al+Mg 450

Ti+Ca 0.01

Fe+Cr 0.00

T= 16 MK,

EM = 1.e49 cm-3

(cts/s)

Al+Mg 2e4

Ti+Ca 7e3

Fe+Cr 3e3

First SphinX Workshop 29 – 31May, 2007, Wrocław Poland Janusz Sylwester


Data formatting
Data formatting

  • Time stamping (up to 104/s rates)

    • energy (256 channels)

    • time (1 microsec)  each detector

  • Spectral mode for higher rates

    • cts/energy bin (100 Hz)

  • Will fact as the flare monitor for TESIS

    • algorithm to report status of solar soft X-ray activity: quiet/flare, level BX20

First SphinX Workshop 29 – 31May, 2007, Wrocław Poland Janusz Sylwester


Data processing control
Data processing & control

  • Served by TESIS main computer

    • data compression to telemetry

    • changing modes of data gathering: 3 modes

    • commanding the shutter motor: calibration

    • sending commands and programs to SphinX

    • processing the data for activity status

First SphinX Workshop 29 – 31May, 2007, Wrocław Poland Janusz Sylwester


In flight callibration
In-flight callibration

  • Use of secondary fluorescence radiation with three material targets

    • three peaks at precisely known Energies

      • Mg 1.5 keV

      • Ti 4.5 keV

      • Cu 8 keV

    • will be resolved by amplitude discriminator

    • possible only for flares (however)

      • M1 at maximum phase

  • Will see pile-up peaks growing

First SphinX Workshop 29 – 31May, 2007, Wrocław Poland Janusz Sylwester


Problems to be investigated

  • Quiet corona heating processes via photon arrival time-distance analysis

  • Flare related soft X-ray oscillations

    (1 s - 500 s periods)

  • Transient ionization plasma diagnostics (Ne)

  • Solar coronal compositional variability for

    Mg, Al, Si, S, Ar, Ca and Fe(O, Ne, Na?)

  • Differential Emission Measure variability with related flare modeling

  • Absolute (5%) and relative (1%) solar soft X-ray photometry – development of reference system

First SphinX Workshop 29 – 31May, 2007, Wrocław Poland Janusz Sylwester


Instrument status
Instrument Status

  • All flight parts collected

  • Flight unit under assembly

  • Tests schedule

    • Permanent local test using Fe55 and v.c.

    • Early Sept 2007 in BESSY synchrotron

    • Sept/Oct 2007 at XACT Palermo

    • Mid-Oct 2007 vibration Prague

    • End Oct. – delivery of flight unit to Moscow

First SphinX Workshop 29 – 31May, 2007, Wrocław Poland Janusz Sylwester


solar

in X-rays

photometer

First SphinX Workshop 29 – 31May, 2007, Wrocław Poland Janusz Sylwester


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