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CIS570 WS2 - Components of Information Systems. Joseph Lewis Aguirre. WS2: Components Of Information Systems. · Examine information systems, including computer hardware and software concepts. · Analyze the use of databases as components of business solutions.

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CIS570 WS2 - Components of Information Systems

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Cis570 ws2 components of information systems

CIS570

WS2 - Components of Information Systems

Joseph Lewis Aguirre


Ws2 components of information systems

WS2: Components Of Information Systems

  • · Examine information systems, including computer hardware and software concepts.

  • · Analyze the use of databases as components of business solutions.

  • ·  Assess various network technologies and the Internet.

  • ·  Identify information systems security issues.

  • ·   Assess methods for securing the organization’s technology assets.


Major e business applications

Major E-Business Applications

Electronic

Business

Applications

Telecommunications

Networks

Enterprise

Communication

and

Collaboration

Electronic

Commerce

Internal

Business

Systems


Enterprise collaboration tools

Electronic

Communications

Tools

Electronic

Conferencing

Tools

Collaborative

Work

Management

Tools

Enterprise Collaboration Tools

Groupware

for

Enterprise

Collaboration

  • E-Mail

  • Voice Mail, I Phone

  • Web Publishing

  • Faxing

  • Data Conferencing

  • Voice Conferencing

  • Videoconferencing

  • Discussion Forums

  • Electronic Meetings

  • Calendaring

  • Task and Project Mgt

  • Workflow Systems

  • Knowledge Mgt

  • Document Sharing


Cis570 ws2 components of information systems

Information Management

Innovator

Expert

Professional

Awareness

Knowledge

Insight

What to Think

How to Think


Types of information systems

Organization

Types of Information Systems

WGSS

AI

DSS

MIS

Transaction

Flow

What

EIS

CRM

Decentralized

Shared

Personal IS

TPS

Office IS


Cis570 ws2 components of information systems

Generalized System

Control

Input

Processing

Output

Environment

System

Components, Relationships, Boundaries, Interfaces, Constraints


Cis570 ws2 components of information systems

Modem Communications System

Control

Modem

Modem

00100010101000110001111111000110001

Message

Message Received

Destination

Info Source

Noise


Cis570 ws2 components of information systems

Generalized Communications System

Control

Transmitter

Transmission

Channel

Receiver

00100010101000110001111111000110001

Message

Message Received

Destination

Info Source

Noise


Cis570 ws2 components of information systems

Modem Communications System

Control

Modem

Modem

00100010101000110001111111000110001

Message

Message Received

Destination

Info Source

Noise


Information knowledge

INFORMATION/KNOWLEDGE


Value of information

Value of Information

Timeliness - is it available soon enough for it to be meaningful?

Sufficiency - completeness. Is there adequate information for the purpose intended. Issues: sample size; time horizon

Level of Detail or Aggregation - are the data broken down into meaningful units

Redundancy - this can be a problem if there is too much redundancy or too little redundancy

Understandability

  • practicality

  • simplicity

  • minimization of perceptual errors

  • difficulty with encoding


Value of information1

Value of Information

Freedom from Bias

Reliability - is information is correct and verifiability

Decision-Relevance - predictive power, significance

Cost-efficiency - need to consider the change in the decision behavior after obtaining the information minus the cost of obtaining it

Cost-effectiveness

Comparability

consistency of format

consistency of aggregation

consistency of fields


Value of information2

Value of Information

Quantifiability

Appropriateness of format , medium of display

ordering of the information

graphical vs. tabular display

Quantity: more is not better!


Information

Information

Information is a function of context, closely related to such concepts as meaning, knowledge, instruction, communication, representation, and mental stimulus.

We speak of the advent of the "information age," the "information society," and information technologies, and even though information science and computer science are often in the spotlight, the word "information" is often used without careful consideration of the various meanings it has come to acquire.


Information as a message

Information - as a message

As a message: communicated from the sender to the receiver.

-- does not have to be accurate. It may be a truth or a lie

-- may even be a disruptive noise used to inhibit the flow of communication and create misunderstanding.

This model does not attach any significance to the idea that information is something that can be extracted from an environment


Information as a pattern

Information - as a pattern

Information is any represented pattern.

Example: economic statistics represent an economy, however inaccurately


Information as sensory input

Information - as sensory input

Information is any type of sensory input.

Example: while abstract painting does not represent anything concretely,when the viewer sees the painting, it is nevertheless transformed into electrical signals that create a representation of the painting.


Information classification

Information - Classification

  • Top secret – "exceptionally grave damage" to national security if disclosed.

  • Secret – "serious damage" to national security.

  • Confidential – information which would "damage" national security if disclosed.

  • Unclassified – is the default, unclassified is sometimes "restricted"


Forces of influence finding nemo

Forces of Influence- Finding Nemo

Professionals in various fields rely on articles in prestigious industry-specific journals to make decisions: Engineering, finance, insurance, human resources, medicine, education, politicians, etc.

What some authors do:

  • Describe original main goal as secondary – 34%

  • Fail to disclose original goal – 26 %

  • Turn original secondary goal into main goal – 19%

  • Create new main goal

    Most Likely in:

    LA Times, JAMA, AMA, NY Times, WSJ?


Forces of influence finding nemo1

Forces of Influence- Finding Nemo

Professionals in various fields rely on articles in prestigious industry-specific journals to make decisions: Engineering, finance, insurance, human resources, medicine, education, politicians, etc.

What some authors do:

  • Describe original main goal as secondary – 34%

  • Fail to disclose original goal – 26 %

  • Turn original secondary goal into main goal – 19%

  • Create new main goal

    Most Likely in:

    LA Times, JAMA, AMA, NY Times, WSJ?

Source WSJ: 5-11-05


Knowledge management paradox

Knowledge Management Paradox

The more competent domain experts become, the less able they are to describe the knowledge they use to solve problems


Problem solving process

Problem Solving Process

Computers are useless. They can only give you answers

Pablo Picasso:


Knowledge

Processed

Relevant, actionable

Information

Knowledge

Data

Contextual, relevant, actionable

Knowledge


Knowledge greek

Knowledge - Greek

ginosko - "to come to know," and is used of knowledge acquired and communicated objectively

oida, which (from idein, to "see with the mind's eye") is inward consciousness, knowledge of in one's own mind (hence a derivative of it signifies "conscience");


Knowledge greek1

Knowledge - Greek

ginosko (with its substantive gnosis), epiginosko (with its substantive epignosis), oida, and epistamai

"now I know (gin) in part, but then shall I fully know (epigin) even as also I am fully known (epigin)." The difference between the two words is the intensive character given to gnosis, "knowledge" (or its verb), by the preposition epi which is added to it, making it "a deeper and more intimate knowledge and acquaintance."

The following passages in which the compound epignosis Or epiginosko is found will confirm the distinctive force of it: Rom. 3: 20; Rom. 10: 2; Eph. 1: 17; Eph. 4: 13; Phil. 1: 9; Col. 1: 6, 9, 10; Col. 2: 2 ("acknowledgement," A.V.); Col. 3: 10; 1 Tim. 2: 4; Titus 1: 1; 2 Peter 1: 2, 3, 8 (cp. Matt. 11: 27


Knowledge1

Knowledge

Info

Info

concepts

beliefs

ideas

Info

Info

Info

Info


Activation functions

Unit Step

Sigmoid

Piecewise Linear 

Gaussian

Identity

  f (x) = x

Activation Functions


Cis570 ws2 components of information systems

Knowledge - Bloom

Benjamin Bloom’s Taxonomy Chart

Knowledge

Comprehension

Application

Analysis

Synthesis

Evaluation


Decision making framework

Decision Making Framework

Information Characteristics

Decision Structure

Pre specified Scheduled Detailed Frequent Historical Internal Narrow Focus

Business Professionals

Operational Management Efficient, do thing right

Structured

Tactical Management Business Unit Managers -Effective, right thing

Ad Hoc Unscheduled Summarized Infrequent Forward looking External Wide Scope

Semi Structured

Strategic Management Executives, Directors -Transformation

Un Structured

RELATIVE TIME SPAN


Decision making drivers

Decision Making Drivers

Decision Making Drivers at Work:

Decision Making Drivers at Large :

Technology Complexity Competition Globalization Environmental/Regulatory Change


The mba alphabet soup

The MBA Alphabet Soup

  • TQM

  • Six Sigma

  • SCM

  • HCSCM

  • VCM

  • VVC

  • Continuous Improvement


Knowledge management

Knowledge Management


Knowledge management1

Knowledge Management

  • Structure influences behavior.

  • Structure in human systems is subtle.

  • Leverage often comes from new ways of thinking.


Revolution in learning and knowledge sharing

Revolution in Learning and Knowledge Sharing

From 1995–97, scientists in the United States co-authored articles with scientists from 173 other countries; Scientists in Brazil with 114, in Kenya with 81, in Algeria 59.


Revolution in learning and knowledge sharing1

Revolution in Learning and Knowledge Sharing

The six largest internet-based distance-learning universities in the world are located in developing countries -- Turkey, Indonesia, China, India, Thailand and Korea


Cis570 ws2 components of information systems

Security


Security and risks

Security and Risks

The BCS Code of Practice says:

“Asystem is at risk from the moment that the project which develops it is first conceived.

This risk remains until at least after the system is finally discontinued, perhaps indefinitely. Threats to security range from incompetence, accident and carelessness to deliberate theft, fraud, espionage or malicious attack.”


Security

Security

Convenience

Cost

Quality

Scope

Security

Convenience


The 10 000 fence for the 1 00 horse

The $10,000 Fence for the $1.00 Horse


Know thy enemy

Know Thy Enemy

In-house security breaches account for some 70-90% of all security breaches. Hurwitz Group

57% - Worse breaches occurred when their own users accessed unauthorized information.

Next problem happened when user accounts remained active when users left the company. Digital Research

Only 21% are concerned with external security threats.


Worm evolution

Worm Evolution

1988 - Robert Morris First worm

2001 - Code Red, exploited IIS to infect 359,00 hosts to launch a Denial Of Service attack on the White House site…random propagation caused it to clog and contain

2001 - Code Red authors learned and launched Nimda

2003 - Sapphire - exploited vulnerability in MS SQL Server

2004 - Welchia.C - compiled list of addresses - variant SoBig.F

2005 - BotNets - Worm writers partner with spammers for profit.


Cost of computer crime

Cost of Computer Crime

Source: Computer Security Institute

Insurance Council of Australia estimates $3 trillion/year


Action taken after breach

Action Taken After Breach

Source: Computer Security Institute


Cis570 ws2 components of information systems

Security Management of E-Business

Network Protocols

Encryption

Security

Monitors

VPN

Biometric

Security Controls

Access Control

Backup

Files

Fire Walls

Authentication


Security vs privacy

Security Vs Privacy

Biggest Problem isn’t about privacy…it is sloppy security

-----Lee Gomes, Wall Street Journal


Risk exposure by industry

Risk Exposure by Industry

Degree of exposure to risk


Security vs privacy1

Security Vs Privacy

Mail: 25-30 %

Web Traffic: 50-60%


Security landscape

Security Landscape

  • Hackers, crackers, and thieves, oh my! Viruses, worms, and trojans, oh my!

  • Identity theft running rampant (electronic AND in person)

    • Internal/external fraud on the rise

    • Third party vendors selling private information

  • Wireless networks broadcasting data

  • The insecure nature of academic networks


Sensitive data

Sensitive Data

  • Definition of “sensitive data”

  • Analysis of where sensitive data is used

  • Assessment of the security of systems with sensitive data

  • Securing systems with sensitive data

  • Developing an information security culture


Sensitive data1

Sensitive Data

  • “Personal information”

    • Name, address, contact information, gender, age

    • Social Security Number

    • Banking information, including financial institution, account number, credit/debit card number

    • Health / medical data


Sensitive data2

Sensitive Data

  • Corporate information

    • Operational procedures

    • Contingency procedures

    • Bank account and investment information

  • Other information that might be used to conduct fraud or impersonation

    • Often depends on context

    • Look at as a whole, not specific pieces individually


Sensitive data found in

Sensitive Data Found in:

  • Student systems

  • Cashiering / Bursar / POS systems

  • Application, registration, recruitment systems

  • Accounts Receivable / Payable

  • Human Resources / Payroll

  • Medical / clinical systems

  • Departmental databases

    • Treasury workstation

    • Conference registrations (if keep credit card numbers)

      • Research databases


Assessing security of sensitive systems

Assessing Security of Sensitive Systems

  • Nontechnical assessments:

    • Physical security assessment

    • Location of sensitive records

    • Logical access to data (Who has access? Do they really need access?)

    • Disaster backup procedures

    • Contingency procedures

    • Privacy statement / policies


Assessing security of sensitive systems contractual services agreement

Assessing Security of Sensitive Systems - Contractual Services Agreement

  • Third party vendor assessment

  • Boilerplate language for

    • Protection of data

    • System security

    • Secure file exchange

    • Financial penalties for noncompliance

  • Use of subcontractors ONLY with your permission


Assessing security of sensitive systems operational security

Assessing Security of Sensitive Systems - Operational Security

  • Do our procedures require sensitive data?

    • SSN on deposited checks

    • Credit card number on conference registration server

    • SSN as student ID

  • Can we replace the data with nonsensitive data?

  • Can we change the procedure entirely?

    • ACH payments instead of checks


Assessing security of sensitive systems privacy policies

Assessing Security of Sensitive Systems - Privacy Policies

  • Does the organization have a master privacy policy?

  • Does each departmental web site either have their own privacy policy or link to master?

  • Does the policy comply with local law? (California, other states)

  • Is data access limited to “need to know”?

    • Access control lists for everything


Assessing security of sensitive systems technical assessment

Assessing Security of Sensitive Systems - Technical Assessment

  • Visa Cardholder Information Security Program Compliance Questionnaire

    • 77 point technical security checklist

  • SANS SCORE Project checklists

  • Form alliance with internal auditors (EDP auditors)

  • Hire outside expertise for assessment


Assessing security of sensitive systems securing

Assessing Security of Sensitive Systems - Securing

  • Implement technical security measures

    • Firewalls, intrusion detection and response, appropriate architecture

    • Visa CISP checklist measures (SSL, data encryption, etc.)

    • Access control policies (least possible access to data) implemented and enforced

    • Enforce good passwords

  • Hire professional security programming expertise (require department to do so)

    • Particularly if cards accepted over web sites


Assessing security of sensitive systems centralized security

Assessing Security of Sensitive Systems - Centralized Security

  • Centralized student systems behind mega-firewall

  • Firewalls within firewalls

  • Data inquiries run on server, only results passed to client

    • Remote access to student data severely limited

  • Web servers never retain credit card information

  • Look at processes and procedures (sanitize reports, etc.)


Assessing security of sensitive systems culture development

Assessing Security of Sensitive Systems - Culture Development

  • Buy-in from the highest levels

    • Lots of scary stories

    • Regulatory requirements

    • Financial liability

    • Adverse publicity

  • Basic security education for all users AND students

  • Partnership with internal auditors

  • Partnership with campus computer departments


Financial

Typical Vulnerability

Breach

Invalidated Parameters

Hijack accounts; steal data; commit fraud

Command Injection Flaws

Database dumps all account information

Buffer Overflows

Crash the servers; damage app, other mayhem

Cross Site Scripting

Steal account and customer information

Broken Accounts/Session Mgmt

Hijack accounts; steal data; commit fraud

Financial


Information security action plan

Information Security Action Plan

  • Keep it simple

  • Security requirements

  • Assessing threats

  • Establish Security framework

  • Plan for disaster

  • Develop clear security policy

  • Use the right security tools

  • Staff training

  • Monitor


Application protection

Application Protection

  • Improved QA

  • Scanning/Vulnerability Assessment

  • Host Based

  • Intrusion Detection (IDS)

  • Intrusion Prevention (IPS)

  • Application Firewall


Application protection qa

Application Protection - QA

ADVANTAGE

DIS-ADVANTAGE

Right the first time

No runtime performance penalty

Built into application development cost

Time consuming

Protects from known vulnerabilities

Lack of specialized security expertise


Scanning and vulnerability assess

Scanning and Vulnerability Assess.

ADVANTAGE

DIS-ADVANTAGE

  • Identifies vulnerabilities

  • Complement lack of security expertise

  • VENDORS

  • SPI Dynamics

  • Sanctum

  • Kavedo

Secure as last scan

A challenge fixing vulnerabilities discovered


Host based scanning

Host Based Scanning

ADVANTAGE

DIS-ADVANTAGE

  • Plugs security holes once discovered

  • Helps with network level

  • VENDORS

  • Cisco

  • NETA

  • Sana

May not address OS, platform dependencies and other vulnerabilities


Security1

Security

Severe

E-COMMERCE

Risk of Breach

Real Time Protection

Host Based

SCAN AND VA

QA

Minimal

Static Content eCommerce


Application protection1

Application Protection

ADVANTAGE

DIS-ADVANTAGE

  • Stops hacks before they get to the application

  • Continuous protection

  • VENDORS

  • Teros

  • Netcontinuum

  • Magnifier/F5

Upfront investment

Increased network complexity

Secure Application Gateway


Web application security market

Web Application Security Market


Cis570 ws2 components of information systems

DECISION ENVIRONMENT

ENVIRONMENT

CLIMATE

Other Teams

Marketplace

Enthusiasm

STRUCTURE

Competition

Accountability

Reward System

GOALS

Reporting Relationships

Values

Clarity

Commitment

Collaboration

Mission Philosophy

Stress

Feedback System

Decision Making

Behavior Norm

Flexibility

Trust

Competition

Culture

Involvement

Pressures


Cis570 ws2 components of information systems

Fund Transfers

Origin

Destination


Experience design

Experience Design


Cis570 ws2 components of information systems

Experiences

  • Experiences have always been the point of differentiation and problems--whether you design for them or not.

  • User-centered Design is more than mere Usability

  • Computers and related devices are more sophisticated

  • Computers and related devices are more social

  • Computers and related devices need to be more human

  • Personas and Scenarios (as traditionally practiced) aren't doing the job

  • Designers need to better understand people's emotions, desires, dreams, and relations to others

    People default to behaviors and expectations of computers in ways consistent with human-to-human contact and relationships [Nass and Reeves].


Cis570 ws2 components of information systems

Experiences

Is the User-Centered Approach the Problem?

Some of the worst examples of interface design faithfully follow a user-centric approach.

Some of the best examples don’t.

What's wrong with this picture?


Experience vs interface

Experience Vs Interface

What is an experience and how is it different than an interface?

From the field of Information Design/Architecture:

  • Information Theory

  • Cognitive Models

  • Navigation Design

  • Clarity

  • Consistency


Experience vs interface1

Experience Vs Interface

What is an experience and how is it different than an interface?

From the field of Interface Design:

  • Metaphors

  • User Behavior

  • Usability


Experience vs interface2

Experience Vs Interface

What is an experience and how is it different than an interface?

From the field of Interaction Design:

  • Interactivity

  • Participation

  • Feedback

  • Control

  • Time/Flow

  • Productivity/Creativity

  • Communications

  • Adaptivity


Experience vs interface3

Experience Vs Interface

What is an experience and how is it different than an interface?

From other fields:

  • Storytelling/Narrative (Writing/Theater/Film/etc.)

  • Community (Sociology)

  • Identity (Psychology)

  • Improvisation (Theater)

  • Point of View (Writing/Theater/Film/etc.)

  • Programmability (CS)

  • Seduction/Persuasion (Psychology)

  • Emotions (Psychology)

  • Viability/Feasibility (Business)

  • Desirability (Marketing(

  • etc.


Experience vs interface4

Experience Vs Interface

What is an experience and how is it different than an interface?

From other fields:

  • Storytelling/Narrative (Writing/Theater/Film/etc.)

  • Community (Sociology)

  • Identity (Psychology)

  • Improvisation (Theater)

  • Point of View (Writing/Theater/Film/etc.)

  • Programmability (CS)

  • Seduction/Persuasion (Psychology)

  • Emotions (Psychology)

  • Viability/Feasibility (Business)

  • Desirability (Marketing(

  • etc.


Experience vs interface5

Experience Vs Interface


Experience issues not part of uc

Experience Issues not part of UC

3DExtended TimeReal InteractionThe other 3+ SensesEmotionsValuesMeaningBusiness Value (Goals)


More experience issues

More Experience Issues

PersuasionSeductionIdentityCommunityAmbienceImmersionSustainabilityTrustEnvironment


Personas and scenarios

Personas and Scenarios

These are common tools for understanding users, their goals, and how this affects solution. They help a team create a solution, communicate it others, create a testable protoype, and create a specification.

Personas are archtypes representing user needs, goals, and activities but they're too often idealized.

Instead of merely demographics, useful personas need to include psychographics.


Typical persona

Typical Persona

  • Engineer

  • Loves solving problems

  • Does interesting things

  • Motivated and hard-working

  • Is curious about technology

  • Loves computers


New user profile implications

New User Profile Implications

  • Require more work

  • Need to be more helpful, useful, and accurate


New user traits

New User Traits

  • Wide context (more than merely the task at hand)

  • Wide timeline (to account for a wider context)

  • Wider scope (the entire experience)

  • Opportunities for psychographic events


Taxonomies

Taxonomies

  • Taxonomies are studies into the depth and bredth of a topic area and help us analyze situations and opportunities systematically. They are a tool for developing more complete experiences.

  • By deconstructing a situation into component parts and analyzing these aspects either one-by-one or in combination, it is possible to flesh-out a much more complete understanding of experiences and design opportunities.

  • It isn't even always important to be thorough. Merely enlarging the design terrain a bit can lead to new insights and innovations in approaches.


Taxonomies1

Taxonomies

  • Taxonomies are studies into the depth and breadth of an area.

  • Building a taxonomy can help build a better understanding of a subject.

  • Taxonomies can be used as mnemonic development aides.

  • Taxonomies can be exhaustive but only give an analytical analysis of a subject.


Taxonomies2

Taxonomies

Researchers developed taxonomies with several axes, including: technologies, emotions, meaning, activities, etc. and used these to develop new concepts for mobile broadband services.


Taxonomies3

Taxonomies


Cis570 ws2 components of information systems

eCommerce Components

Joseph Lewis Aguirre


Cis570 ws2 components of information systems

HTTP

  • HyperText Transfer Protocol is the primary method used to convey information on the World Wide Web.

  • The original purpose was to provide a way to publish and receive HTML pages.


Http conversation

HTTP Conversation

Client Request

Conversation between an HTTP client and an HTTP server running on www.example.com, port 80.

GET / HTTP/1.1 Host: www.example.com

HTTP/1.1 200 OK Date: Mon, 23 May 2005 22:38:34 GMT Server: Apache/1.3.27 (Unix) (Red-Hat/Linux) Last-Modified: Wed, 08 Jan 2003 23:11:55 GMT Etag: "3f80f-1b6-3e1cb03b" Accept-Ranges: bytes Content-Length: 438 Connection: close Content-Type: text/html

Server Response


Https

HTTPS

HTTPS is the secure version of HTTP, the communication protocol of the World Wide Web.

Invented by Netscape Communications Corporation to provide authentication and encrypted communication and is used in electronic commerce.


Ssl tls secure socket layer

SSL/TLS - Secure Socket Layer

Secure Sockets Layer (SSL) and Transport Layer Security (TLS), its successor, are cryptographic protocols which provide secure communications on the Internet.

There are only slight differences between SSL 3.0 and TLS 1.0, but they are not interchangeable.


Ssl secure socket layer cont

SSL - Secure Socket Layer- Cont.

SSL provides endpoint authentication and communications privacy over the Internet using cryptography.

In typical use, only the server is authenticated while the client remains unauthenticated.

Mutual authentication requires PKI deployment to clients.

The protocols allow client/server applications to communicate in a way designed to prevent eavesdropping, tampering, and message forgery.

.


Pki public key infrastructure

PKI- Public Key Infrastructure

In cryptography, PKI is an arrangement which provides for third-party vetting of, and vouching for, user identities. It also allows binding of public keys to users.

PKI arrangements enable users to be authenticated to each other, and to use the information in identity certificates to encrypt and decrypt messages traveling to and from.

In general, a PKI consists of client software, server software such as a certificate authority, hardware (e.g., smart cards) and operational procedures.


Pki public key infrastructure cont

PKI- Public Key Infrastructure -Cont.

Enterprise PKI systems are often closely tied to an enterprise's directory scheme,

Today's leading directory technology is (Light Weight Directory Protocol (LDAP)

The most common certificate format (X.509) stems from its use in LDAP's predecessor, the X.500 directory schema


Ldap light weight directory protocol support

LDAP- Light Weight Directory Protocol Support

  • . Apache (through Apache Directory Server)

  • Apple (through Open Directory)

  • AT&T

  • Banyan

  • HP

  • IBM/Lotus

  • ISODE (through M-Vault server)

  • Microsoft (through Active Directory)

  • Netscape (now in Sun Microsystems and Red Hat products)

  • Novell (through eDirectory)

  • OctetString (through VDE server)

  • Oracle (through Oracle Internet Directory )

  • Red Hat (through Fedora Directory Server )

  • SiemensAG (through DirX server)

  • SGI

  • Sun (through iPlanet directory server)


Internet message access protocol

Internet Message Access Protocol

IMAP, is an application layer Internet protocol used for accessing email on a remote server from a local client.

IMAP and POP3 (Post Office Protocol version 3) are the two most prevalent Internet standard protocols for email retrieval.

While proprietary protocols are typically used between Microsoft's Outlook client and an Exchange server and between IBM's Notes client and a Domino server, all of these products also support IMAP and POP3 allowing interoperability with other servers and clients.


Post office protocol

Post Office Protocol

POP3 is an application layer Internet standard protocol used to retrieve email from a remote server to a local client over a TCP/IP connection. Nearly all individual Internet service provider email accounts are accessed via POP3.

POP3 and its predecessors are designed to allow end users with intermittent connections such as dial-up connections to retrieve email when connected, and then to view and manipulate the retrieved messages without needing to stay connected

In contrast, the newer, more capable IMAP email retrieval protocol supports both connected and disconnected modes of operation.


Email

eMail


Email process

eMail - Process

  • Alice composes a message using her mail user agent (MUA). She types in, or selects from an address book, the e-mail address of her correspondent. She hits the "send" button and the MUA uses the Simple Mail Transfer Protocol (SMTP) to send the message to the local mail transfer agent (MTA), in this case smtp.a.org, run by Alice's Internet Service Provider (ISP).

  • The MTA looks at the destination address, in this case [email protected] A modern Internet e-mail address is a string of the form [email protected] The part before the @ sign is the local part of the address, often the username of the recipient, and the part after the @ sign is a domain name. The MTA looks up this domain name in the Domain Name System to find the mail exchange servers accepting messages for that domain.

  • The DNS server for the b.org domain, ns.b.org, responds with an MX record listing the mail exchange servers for that domain, in this case mx.b.org, a server run by Bob's ISP.

  • smtp.a.org sends the message to mx.b.org using SMTP, which delivers it to the mailbox of the user bob.

  • Bob presses the "get mail" button in his MUA, which picks up the message using the Post Office Protocol (POP3).

  • This sequence of events probably applies to the majority of e-mail users. However, there are many alternative possibilities and complications to the e-mail system:


Mail servers smtp

Mail Servers - SMTP

  • Sendmail

  • Postfix

  • qmail

  • Exim

  • ZMailer[1]

  • Courier (software)[2]

  • MMDF[3]

  • Microsoft Exchange Server

  • Scalix[4]

  • XMS ArcMail Management System[5]

  • ArGoSoft Mail Server[6]

  • Merak Mail Server[7]

  • Kerio MailServer

  • MailEnable Mail Server[8]

  • Mercury Mail Transport System[9] (A free server for Windows)

  • OPEN-XCHANGE Server[10]

  • Apache James [11]

  • iPlanet Messaging Server (formerly Netscape Messaging Server)


Mail servers pop imap

Mail Servers - POP/IMAP

  • UW IMAP - uses mbox format.[12]

  • Courier IMAP - uses Maildir format.[13]

  • hMailServer[14] - MySQL-based, open source, GPL for MS Windows

  • Microsoft Exchange Server

  • Cyrus IMAP server[15]

  • Stalker Communigate Pro[16]

  • ArGoSoft Mail Server[17]

  • Merak Mail server[18]

  • Kerio MailServer

  • MailEnable Mail Server[19]

  • Mercury Mail Transport System[20] (A free server for Windows)

  • Dovecot[21]

  • Apache James

  • dbmail [22]

  • iPlanet Messaging Server (formerly Netscape Messaging Server)


Mail servers mail filtering

Mail Servers - Mail Filtering

  • Procmail

  • DSPAM

  • Vipul's Razor

  • SpamAssassin[23]

  • Bayesian filters

  • MailScanner


Internet protocol suite

Internet Protocol Suite

  • Application layer:HTTP HTTPS, SMTP, FTP, UUCP, NNTP,SSH, IRC, SNMP, SIP, RTP, ...

  • Transport layerTCP, UDP, SCTP, DCCP, .

  • ..

  • Network layerIPv4, IPv6, ICMP, ARP, IGMP,

  • .

  • Data link layerEthernet, Wi-Fi, Token ring, FDDI, PPP, ...

  • Physical layerRS-232, EIA-422, RS-449, EIA-485.

  • ..


Domain name

Domain Name

  • www.ebus400.phoenix.edu

  • edu: Top level domain

  • phoenix.edu: sub-domain

  • In theory, subdivision can go down to 127 levels deep, and each label can contain up to 63 characters, as long as the whole domain name does not exceed a total length of 255 characters


Bandwidth

Bandwidth:

Internet Traffic Report

Internet Information Presentation - A clearinghouse of backbone, packet counts and other data.

Internet2 -established in 1996 to design, build, and operate a new network infrastructure to support advanced education and research


Mail servers smtp1

Mail Servers - SMTP

  • Sendmail

  • Postfix

  • qmail

  • Exim

  • ZMailer[1]

  • Courier (software)[2]

  • MMDF[3]

  • Microsoft Exchange Server

  • Scalix[4]

  • XMS ArcMail Management System[5]

  • ArGoSoft Mail Server[6]

  • Merak Mail Server[7]

  • Kerio MailServer

  • MailEnable Mail Server[8]

  • Mercury Mail Transport System[9] (A free server for Windows)

  • OPEN-XCHANGE Server[10]

  • Apache James [11]

  • iPlanet Messaging Server (formerly Netscape Messaging Server)


Cis570 ws2 components of information systems

VPN

Virtual Private Network-

VPN Source Page


Cis570 ws2 components of information systems

EFT

By registering your financial institution account information on the ACH Vendor/Miscellaneous Payment Enrollment Form (EFT Form) with the Defense Finance and Accounting Service (DFAS), payment funds can be electronically transferred into your account.


Cis570 ws2 components of information systems

EFT

  • U.S. Department of Treasury - EFT

  • Electronic Transfer Account (ETA)

  • Social Security Administration

  • Debt Collection Improvement Act of 1996

  • US. Department of Treasury- Vendor Express

  • Treasury- Finance Functional Workgroup (EDI)

  • Electronic Federal Tax Payment System (EFTPS)

  • NACHA- National Automated Clearing House Association


Cis570 ws2 components of information systems

ePAY

Treasury Management Association - TMA survey on migration from check to electronic payments

GlobeSet: ecProfessional - information about Payments & Transactions.

ePaymentNow Payments Gatewaytm - Payments Gateway you can perform eBusiness with any private or government entity, funds are deposited into your account in 24 to 48 hours

Electronic Cash - LookSmart Site Recommendations

WebReference: Payment Systems - companies that will do credit card processing

TechBuyer- use intranet technology to simplify purchasing, buy and sell IT products


Intranet

INTRANET

COMPLETE INTRANET RESOURCE

INTRANET FAQ

INTRANET DEMO

INTRANET SOFTWARE

Accounting & Measuring Traffic

Intranets and Related Topics


Extranet

EXTRANET

Extranet Overview

Extranet Software - Extranet Creator-Extranet Creator is server software for secure Extranet business communities

Extranet Software - Aventail - Secure Extranet product

Top Business-to-Business Sites - NetMarketing Top 200 ranking of the top Business-to-Business Web Sites

Extranet White papers

Extranet Events

Article: Grocery Extranet

Accounting & Measuring Traffic


Hosting

HOSTING

TopHosts

HostList.com

HostSearch

Low Budget Website20 Questions to ask a Host

Bigstep

FreeMerchant

iCat

VirtualSpin

E-Sell

MarketMatrix

AdHost

WebHostList

Accounting & Measuring Traffic

http://www.netcy.com/


Cyberspace

CYBERSPACE

Census and Statistical Maps of Cyberspaces

Maps of Internet Service Provider (ISP)and Internet Backbone Networks

Multi-User Dimensions (MUDs) &Virtual Worlds


Ebanking

EBANKING

CommerceNet | Cybercash | Cybertrust (GTE) | Digicash (E-cash) | EDI (Bank of America)Electronic Banking Resource Center | A Framework for Global Electronic Commerce (NIST)Electronic commerce, ANSI X12/EDI/EDIFACT (Premenos)Digital certificate overview...Digital Signature Information and Legislation Page (Software Industry Coalition)Electronic Payments ForumeTRUST | First Virtual Bank | NetCheque (USC ISI)Security First Network Bank: | Electronic Commerce papers on Internet IPOs, Electronic Financial Services, Cookies and the Commercialization of the WWW, and Intranets and How They are Saving Corporations Money

EC WorldElectronic Commerce World InstituteComputerWorld


Economics of the internet

ECONOMICS OF THE INTERNET

The Economics of the Internet, Information Goods, Intellectual Property and Related Issues page (UC Berkeley)

Background and Reference

Network Economics

Pricing

Security, Privacy and Encryption

International


Internet administration

INTERNET ADMINISTRATION

Internet Society (ISOC) | Internet Architecture Board (IAB) | Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) Web site | Internet Engineering Steering Group (IESG) | Internet Assigned Number Authority (IANA) (Protocol Numbers and Assignment Services) | The Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers (ICANN) | Domain Name Support Organization (DNSO) | NTIA's proposed structure for managing domain names and addresses | Internet International Ad Hoc Committee (IAHC) | The gTLD-MOU Web | American Registry for Internet Numbers | VeriSign Global Registry Services | InterNIC domain/DNS information | Domain name registries around the world | CORE: Internet Council of Registrars | RIPE | Asia-Pacific NIC (APNIC) | Latin American & Caribbean NIC (LACNIC) | African NIC (AfriNIC) | Canadian Internet Registration Authority (CIRA) | Mexico NIC | Yahoo! list of NICs | NetNames USA | | Register.com | IP Address Index | [GlobalOne mirror | Flumps mirror] root-servers.org | World Internetworking Alliance (WIA) | map of the DNS root servers | F.root-servers.net.) | International E-mail Accessibility | Procedures for Internet and Enterprise Renumbering (PIER)| RFC Editor's Page | ISI's ftp site | M.I.T.'s RFC site | NIC.DDN.MIL ftp


Internet general information

INTERNET GENERAL INFORMATION

Webopedia | NetGlos -- The Multilingual Glossary of Internet Terminology | Glossary of Internet TermsThe Internet Press | "Age of the Internet" (PBS series)CogSum: The Information Byway to Computers, Coffee and Cognoscenti | Exploring the InternetInternet Conference CalendarFirst Monday | Frequently Asked Questions (FAQ) list at MIT (ftp) | All The FAQs (Ohio State) | FAQ FinderHISTORY: Hobbes' Internet Timeline | PBS' "Life on the Internet" Timeline | "Short History of the Internet" (Bruce Sterling) | USENET | PBS' Nerds...


Internet protocol

INTERNET PROTOCOL

TCP/IP Overview (GCK) | TCP/IP tutorial (Rutgers) | IP addressing (3Com)E-MAIL: Internet Mail Consortium page | Internet Message Access Protocol (IMAP) page | Tutorials on LDAP, IMAP, MIME, SMTP, and POPIP VERSION 6 (IPv6): IPv6 Forum | North American IPv6 Task Force(NAv6TF) | IPv6 in the vBNS | "IPv6 Overview" (GCK) | 6bone | Other IPv6 sites | IETF IPv6 Working Group | IP Version 6 (IPv6) Page | IPv6 Forum | "Is IPv6 Necessary?" (Ikeda & Yamada)IP PERFORMANCE: ECN (Explicit Congestion Notification) in TCP/IP page | TCP/IP tuning and performanceTUNING TCP/IP OVER ADSL/CABLE MODE: Speed Guide.net | DSL ReportsMULTICAST: MBONE | IP Multicast Initiative (IPMI)IP SWITCHING: Ipsilon (IP Switching/IP Flows) | IETF's Multiprotocol Label Switching (mpls) Working Group | MPLS Forum | The MPLS Resource Center | Cisco (tag switching) | ARIS specification (IBM)The Ping Page


Enterprise applications

Accounting and

Financial

Management

Supply

Chain

Management

Customer

Relationship

Management

Business

Decision

Support

Enterprise

Resource

Planning

Human

Resource

Management

Enterprise Applications


Types of information systems1

Organization

Types of Information Systems

WGSS

AI

DSS

MIS

Transaction

Flow

What

EIS

CRM

Decentralized

Shared

Personal IS

TPS

Office IS


File structure

File Structure

File Cabinet Metaphor:

Directory

Folder

File – various types of digital data


Human computer interaction

Human Computer Interaction

Help message in AutoCAD Mechanical

The message was generated after copying NT user profile in System Properties dialog. Since when is success an error?


Metaphors realcd

Metaphors - RealCD

Of the two remaining controls, the Exit Application control is perhaps the least intuitive control we have seen in a GUI We searched in vain for it, clicking on the control panel, the logo, right-clicking in various places, all to no avail

Isys Information Achitects


Telecommunications network

Computers

Telecommunications

Software

Telecommunications Network

Telecommunications

Processors

PCs, NCs,

and Other

Terminals

Telecommunications

Channels and Media


Client server technology

Servers

Client Server Technology

Host Systems/

Superservers

Client


Cis570 ws2 components of information systems

Shared

Database and

Software Packages

Network

Server

PC

PC

PC

PC

PC

LANs

Shared

Printer

Internetwork Processor to Other Networks


Cis570 ws2 components of information systems

WANs


Network topologies

Server

Server

Network Topologies


Network topologies1

Server

Network Topologies


Internet connection

Hub

Ethernet Switch

Router

Internet Connection

Modem

Remote Access Device

Frame relay switch

ISP

ATM switch

Core Router

ATM switch

Frame relay switch

Internet Backbone

ISP


Cis570 ws2 components of information systems

VPN

The

Internet

Router

Extranet

Fire wall

Intranet

Server

Fire wall

Router

Intranet

Server

Extranet Server


Extranets

Extranets


E business enterprise

E-Business Enterprise

Internet Users

M-Commerce

Users

Extranet Links

Extranet Links

Gateway

Customers

Suppliers

Marketing

Server

CORPORATE

INTRANET

Engineering

Server

H.R.

Server

Legacy Data

Server

Other Sites


Cis570 ws2 components of information systems

Supply Chain Management

Joseph Lewis Aguirre


Scm drivers

SCM Drivers

  • $1.1 Trillion in Inventory to support $3.2 Trillion in annual retail:

  • >$400 billion at retail locations

  • > $290 billion at wholesalers

  • >$450 billion at manufacturers

  • 8.2% of shoppers fail to find product in stock

  • These stock outs represent 6.5% of all retial sales retailers suffer net loss sales of 3.1%


Scm pitfalls

SCM Pitfalls

Demand Forecasting

Data Cleansing

Computational Efficiency

Simplistic Replenishment Methodology

Target Service Uniform Across SKUs

Product Unit Conversion as Functions of Increase in Demand

Bullwhip Effect

Performance Metrics poorly used


Scm summary

SCM Summary

  • Customer Service greater revenue and profits

  • Inventory Turn Over  Frees up working capital

  • Worker Productivity Lowers operating expenses

  • Capacity Utilization  Increases return on assets

  • Lower Logistics Costs  Lowers operating expenses

  • Lower Cost of Goods Sold  Increases net income


Cis570 ws2 components of information systems

Supply Chain Operations Reference Model (SCOR)

Joseph Lewis Aguirre


Process reference model

Process Reference Model

  • Process reference models integrate the well-known concepts of business process reengineering, benchmarking, and process measurement into a cross-functional framework

Business Process Reengineering

Best Practices Analysis

Process Reference Model

Benchmarking

Capture the “as-is” state of a process and derive the desired “to-be” future state

Quantify the operational performance of similar companies and establish internal targets based on “best-in-class” results

Characterize the management practices and software solutions that result in “best-in-class” performance

Capture the “as-is” state of a process and derive the desired “to-be” future state

Quantify the operational performance of similar companies and establish internal targets based on “best-in-class” results

Characterize the management practices and software solutions that result in “best-in-class” performance


Cis570 ws2 components of information systems

SCOR Five MGMT Processes

Plan

Return

Return

Source

Deliver

Return

Return

Return

Return

Return

Return

Make

Deliver

Source

Make

Deliver

Source

Deliver

Make

Source

Customer’sCustomer

Your Company

Supplier

Customer

Suppliers’Supplier

Internal or External

Internal or External

SCOR Model

Building Block Approach

ProcessesMetrics

Best PracticeTechnology


Cis570 ws2 components of information systems

SCOR 6.0 Processes

Plan

P1 Plan Supply Chain

P4 Plan Deliver

P5 Plan Returns

P3 Plan Make

P2 Plan Source

Source

Make

Deliver

M1 Make-to-Stock

S1 Source Stocked Products

D1 Deliver Stocked Products

Suppliers

S2 Source MTO Products

M2 Make-to-Order

D2 Deliver MTO Products

Customers

M3 Engineer-to-Order

S3 Source ETO Products

D3 Deliver ETO Products

D4 Deliver Retail Products

Return Deliver

Return Source

Enable


Scor scope

SCOR Scope

  • SCOR Spans:

    • All supplier / customer interactions

      • Order entry through paid invoice

    • All physical material transactions

      • From your supplier’s supplier to your customer’s customer, including equipment, supplies, spare parts, bulk product, software, etc.

    • All market interactions

      • From the understanding of aggregate demand to the fulfillment of each order

    • Returns


Scor scope cont

SCOR Scope (cont)

  • SCOR does not include:

    • Sales administration processes

    • Technology development processes

    • Product and process design and development processes

    • Some post-delivery technical support processes

  • SCOR assumes but does not explicitly address

    • Training

    • Quality

    • Information Technology (IT) administration (non-SCM)


Scor project road map

SCOR Project Road Map

  • Competitive Performance Requirements

  • Performance Metrics

  • Supply Chain Scorecard

  • Scorecard Gap Analysis

  • Project Plan

Analyze Basis

of Competition

Operations Strategy

SCOR Level 1

  • AS IS Geographic Map

  • AS IS Thread Diagram

  • Design Specifications

  • TO BE Thread Diagram

  • TO BE Geographic Map

Configure

supply chain

Material Flow

SCOR Level 2

Align

Performance

Levels, Practices, and Systems

  • AS IS Level 2, 3, and 4 Maps

  • Disconnects

  • Design Specifications

  • TO BE Level 2, 3, and 4 Maps

Information

and Work Flow

SCOR Level 3

Implement

supply chain Processes and

Systems

Develop, Test, and Roll Out

  • Organization

  • Technology

  • Process

  • People


Material flow map

Manufacturing

Warehouse

Warehouse

Warehouse

Warehouse

European Supplier

Latin American

Suppliers

Other Suppliers

Material Flow Map

(S1, D1)(SR1,DR1,DR3)

(S1, S2, M1, D1)(SR1,,DR1)

(S1)(SR1,SR3)

(S1)(SR1,SR3)

(D2)(DR1)

(S1, D1)(SR1,DR1,DR3)

(S1, D1)(SR1, DR3)

(D1)

(D1)

(S1)(SR1,SR3)

(S1)(SR1,SR3)

(S1, D1)(SR1,DR1,DR3)


Mapping execution processes

Mapping Execution Processes

Americas

Distributors

S1

SR1

D2

M2

S2

European RM Supplier

SR3

S2

D1

M1

S1

D1

S1

DR1

SR1

DR1

SR1

DR1

SR1

DR3

SR3

DR3

SR3

S1

D1

S1

M1

Key Other RM Suppliers

Alpha Regional

Warehouses

RM Suppliers

ALPHA

Distributors


Identifying plan activities

Identifying Plan Activities

P1

P1

P1

P3

P2

P4

P3

P2

P4

P4

P2

D2

M2

S2

European RM Supplier

S2

D1

M1

S1

D1

S1

S1

M1

Key Other RM Suppliers

D1

S1

Alpha Regional

Warehouses

Consumer

RM Suppliers

ALPHA

Distributors


Linking attributes and metrics

Performance Attribute

Performance Attribute Definition

Level 1 Metric

Supply Chain Delivery Reliability

The performance of the supply chain in delivering: the correct product, to the correct place, at the correct time, in the correct condition and packaging, in the correct quantity, with the correct documentation, to the correct customer.

Delivery Performance

Fill Rates

Perfect Order Fulfillment

Supply Chain Responsiveness

The velocity at which a at which a supply chain provides products to the customer.

Order Fulfillment Lead Times

Supply Chain Flexibility

The agility of a supply chain in responding to marketplace changes to gain or maintain competitive advantage.

Supply Chain Response Time

Production Flexibility

Supply Chain Costs

The costs associated with operating the supply chain.

Cost of Goods Sold

Total Supply Chain Management Costs

Value-Added Productivity

Warranty / Returns Processing Costs

Supply Chain Asset Management Efficiency

The effectiveness of an organization in managing assets to support demand satisfaction. This includes the management of all assets: fixed and working capital.

Cash-to-Cash Cycle Time

Inventory Days of Supply

Asset Turns

Linking Attributes and Metrics


Level one performance metrics

Level One Performance Metrics

Customer-Facing

Internal-Facing

SCOR Level 1supply chain Management

Responsiveness

Flexibility

Supply Chain

Reliability

Cost

Assets

Delivery performance 

Fill rate 

Perfect order fulfillment 

Order fulfillment lead time 

Supply Chain Response Time 

Production flexibility 

Total SCM management cost 

Cost of Goods Sold 

Value-added productivity 

Warranty cost or returns processing cost 

Cash-to-cash cycle time 

Inventory days of supply 

Asset turns 


Supply chain scorecard and gap analysis

Supply Chain Scorecard and Gap Analysis

Supply Chain SCORcard

Performance Versus Competitive Population

Overview Metrics

SCOR Level 1 Metrics

Actual

Parity

Advantage

Superior

Value from Improvements

Delivery Performance to

85%

90%

95%

50%

Supply

Chain

Reliability

Commit Date

63%

94%

96%

98%

Fill Rates

80%

85%

90%

Perfect Order Fulfillment

0%

$30M Revenue

EXTERNAL

Order Fulfillment Lead times

Responsiveness

35 days

$30M Revenue

7 days

5 days

3 days

Key enabler to cost and asset improvements

Supply Chain Response Time

Flexibility

97 days

82 days

55 days

13 days

30 days

25 days

20 days

Production Flexibility

45 days

Total SCM Management

3%

$30M Indirect Cost

Cost

19%

13%

8%

Cost

NA

NA

NA

NA

NA

Warranty Cost

INTERNAL

Value Added Employee

NA

$156K

$306K

$460K

NA

Productivity

119 days

55 days

38 days

22 days

NA

Inventory Days of Supply

Cash-to-Cash Cycle Time

Assets

196 days

80 days

46 days

28 days

$7 M Capital Charge

Net Asset Turns (Working

2.2 turns

8 turns

12 turns

19 turns

NA

Capital)


Metrics decomposition

Metrics Decomposition

Revenue

Accounts Receivable

Cash Flow

Perfect Order

Fulfillment

Cycle Time

Supplier

on time delivery

Schedule

Achievement

Perfect Order

Fulfillment

On Time

On Time

Delivery

Performance

In Full

In Full

Docs

Docs

European RM Supplier

Damage

D2

M2

S2

Damage

Supplier

on time delivery

Perfect Order

Fulfillment

S2

Key Other RM Suppliers

D1

M1

S1

D1

S1

D1

S1

M1

S1

Alpha Regional

Warehouses

Consumer

RM Suppliers

ALPHA

Consumer


Performance measurement

Revenue

Accounts Receivable

Cash Flow

Performance Measurement

Perfect Order

Fulfillment

Perfect Order

Fulfillment

Goal – 95%

Cycle Time

Inventory

Metrics

Conflict

Supplier

on time delivery

Schedule

Achievement

Perfect Order

Fulfillment

Supplier

on time delivery

Actual – 85%

Schedule

Achievement

Actual – 95%

Perfect Order

Fulfillment

Actual – 90%

Perfect Order

Fulfillment

Actual - 85%

On Time

On Time

Delivery

Performance

In Full

Delivery

Performance

Actual – 99%

In Full

Docs

Docs

  • Under-performance

  • Process

  • Systems

European RM Supplier

Damage

D2

M2

S2

Damage

Supplier

on time delivery

Perfect Order

Fulfillment

S2

  • Under-performance

  • Process

  • Systems

Key Other RM Suppliers

D1

M1

S1

D1

S1

D1

S1

M1

S1

Alpha Regional

Warehouses

Consumer

RM Suppliers

Consumer

RM Suppliers

ALPHA

Consumer


Implementation issues

Implementation Issues

  • SCOR Implementations

    • Vary in scope and objective

      • Green Field

      • Distribution analysis

      • Planning Improvements

      • Change Management / COTS-Consultant Selection

  • How to conduct an ROI evaluation

  • Senior Management support vs. Middle Manager resistance

  • Project timelines

    • Benchmarking

    • Implementation

  • Tools


At t wireless

AT&T Wireless


Intel as is model

Intel - As Is model

Suppliers Supplier

Suppliers

Assemble/ Package

Distribution Centers

Geo Ports of Entry

Americas--->

Europe--->

Asia--->


Gold n plump

Gold’n Plump


F404 engine hp rotor assy

F404 Engine HP Rotor Assy.

NAS

F/A18

NADEP

DSC

NAVICP

CV

25%

On-Time

Fairchild Fasteners

60% of

Requirement Accepted,

90% of that Completed on time

Serviceable Modules 188% of Requirement, Svc Engines 112% of Requirement

77%SMA

Self LockingNut

D2

S1

D1

S1

Serviceable

M2

D2

S1

D1

S1

Rotor

Assy

S2

(carcass)

Svc

M2

D1

164 Days

32 Days

Unserviced Engine Module

Engine

98 days

S2

(carcass)

Unserviceable

Rotor Assy

DR2

SR2


Carter holt harvey best practices

Practice not yet adopted

Practice adopted

Best practice achieved

Carter Holt Harvey Best Practices

COTS / Consultant Evaluations


Usmc srac gap

USMC SRAC - GAP


Scor projects

SCOR Projects

  • Consumer Foods

    • Project Time (Start to Finish) – 3 months

    • Investment - $50,000 US

    • 1st Year Return - $4,300,000 US

  • Electronics

    • Project Time (Start to Finish) – 6 months

    • Investment - $3-5 Million US

    • Projected Return on Investment - $ 230 Million US

  • Software and Planning

    • SAP bases APO key performance indicators (KPIs) on SCOR Model

  • Aerospace and Defense

    • SCOR Benchmarking and use of SCOR metrics to specify performance criteria and provide basis for contracts / purchase orders


Reference

REFERENCE

www.supply-chain.org

[email protected]


Objectives

OBJECTIVES

eBusiness Strategy

vDefine eBusiness.

vDescribe the strategy component of eBusiness.

eBusiness IT Infrastructure & Supply Chain

vDescribe the IT infrastructure component of eBusiness.

vExamine the supply chain component of eBusiness.

eBusiness Marketing

vExamine the marketing component of eBusiness.

eBusiness Legal, Ethical, and Regulatory Issues

vExamine the legal, Ethical, and regulatory component of eBusiness.

eBusiness Trends

Examine eBusiness trends


Cis570 ws2 components of information systems

Human Computer Interaction

Joseph Lewis Aguirre


Value of information3

Value of Information

Timeliness - is it available soon enough for it to be meaningful?

Sufficiency - completeness. Is there adequate information for the purpose intended. Issues: sample size; time horizon

Level of Detail or Aggregation - are the data broken down into meaningful units

Redundancy - this can be a problem if there is too much redundancy or too little redundancy

Understandability

  • practicality

  • simplicity

  • minimization of perceptual errors

  • difficulty with encoding


Value of information4

Value of Information

Freedom from Bias

Reliability - is information is correct and verifiability

Decision-Relevance - predictive power, significance

Cost-efficiency - need to consider the change in the decision behavior after obtaining the information minus the cost of obtaining it

Cost-effectiveness

Comparability

consistency of format

consistency of aggregation

consistency of fields


Value of information5

Value of Information

Quantifiability

Appropriateness of format , medium of display

ordering of the information

graphical vs. tabular display

Quantity: more is not better!


Cis570 ws2 components of information systems

HCI

  • Human Computer Interaction

    • Human-Computer Interface

    • Man-Machine Interface

    • Human Factors

  • Must design systems so that they fit with users needs.

    • Particular people use particular systems to perform particular tasks in a particular context.


U i components

U/I Components

  • Metaphors

  • Navigation

  • Mental models

  • Interaction

  • Appearance

  • Usability


Usability evaluation techniques

Usability Evaluation Techniques

INSPECTION METHOD

Heuristic Cognitive Action Evaluation Walkthrough Analysis

Applicability in PhaseAllAllDesign

Required TimeLowMedHigh

Needed UsersNoneNoneNone

Required Evaluators3+3+1-2

Required EquipmentLowLowLow

Required ExpertiseMedHighHigh

IntrusiveNoNoNo


Usability evaluation techniques1

Usability Evaluation Techniques

TEST METHODS

Thinking Field Question Aloud Observation

Applicability in PhaseDesignFinal TestAll

Required TimeHighMedLow

Needed Users3+20+30+

Required Evaluators11+1

Required EquipmentHighMedLow

Required ExpertiseMedHighLow

IntrusiveYesYesNo


Common u i

Common U/I

  • Ken Olsen, (founder and CEO of Digital Equipment), confessed that he couldn’t figure out how to heat coffee in the company’s microwave

  • P.O.E.T. is

    • Psychology Of Everyday Things

    • Book by Don Norman

  • Contains

    • examples of poorly designed everyday objects

    • discussion of design processes


Common u i1

Common U/I

‘If I were placed in the cockpit of a modern day jet airliner my inability to perform gracefully and smoothly would neither surprise nor bother me. But I shouldn't have trouble with doors and switches, taps and cookers.’ (Norman, p. 2)


Common u i2

Common U/I

  • ‘A friend’ told Don N. of the time ‘he’ got trapped in the doorway of a post office.

  • The entrance was an imposing row of perhaps six glass swinging doors, followed immediately by a second, identical row.

  • (That's a standard design — it helps reduce the airflow and maintain the indoor temperature of the building).


Common u i3

Common U/I

‘If I were placed in the cockpit of a modern day jet airliner my inability to perform gracefully and smoothly would neither surprise nor bother me. But I shouldn't have trouble with doors and switches, taps and cookers.’ (Norman, p. 2)


Common u i4

Common U/I

  • ‘A friend’ told Don N. of the time ‘he’ got trapped in the doorway of a post office.

  • The entrance was an imposing row of perhaps six glass swinging doors, followed immediately by a second, identical row.

  • (That's a standard design — it helps reduce the airflow and maintain the indoor temperature of the building).


Hci examples

HCI - Examples

  • Kitchen Timer

  • Fridge

  • Door traps


Hci examples1

HCI - Examples

  • File Cabinet


Hci choices

Birthdate:

Telephone Number:

4/21/81

510-642-5117

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Birthdate:

Telephone Number:

(

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HCI Choices


Hci choices1

HCI Choices


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