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ВЗАИМНОЕ ВЛИЯНИЕ АТОМОВ В МОЛЕКУЛАХ. д.х.н., проф. СПбГУ Карцова Анна Алексеевна. 2008. 1861 г. А.М. Бутлеров. 1869 г. В.В. Марковников. (по правилу). (против правила). 2. δ +. δ -. С ― С―С―С Х. δ -. δ +. С ― С―С―С У. ЭЛЕКТРОННЫЕ ЭФФЕКТЫ ЗАМЕСТИТЕЛЕЙ

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д.х.н., проф. СПбГУ Карцова Анна Алексеевна

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6185069

..., .

2008


6185069

1861 . ..

1869 . ..

( )

( )

2


6185069

+

-

-

+

(, )

3

I.

-I

sp3Csp2Csp

2,5 2,8 3,2

+I


6185069

II. ( , )

) --

-1,3

) --

+

+

4


6185069

( )

( )

AdE

)

)

1

?

)

)

5


6185069

2

6


6185069

SR

( )

7


6185069

8

SE

SR


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9


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.

( )

( )

h

+ Cl2

+ HCl

Br2 / FeBr3

-

- HBr

h

CH4 + Cl2

CH3Cl + HCl

-

-

( )

+I-

KMnO4, H2SO4

Br2 / FeBr3

- HBr

KMnO4, H2SO4

KMnO4, H2SO4

X

X

CH4

;

10


6185069

- ?

?

11


6185069

-

+

-I

< 106

+ > -I

12


6185069

- SE

I.

II.

13


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+ +

+

14


6185069

.

- ( )

( )

+ H2

2

2

+ 2Na

1.

2CH3OH + 2Na

2CH3ONa + H2

3Br2

- 3HBr

+ NaOH

+ H2O

2.

X

CH3OH + NaOH

X

+ HBr

Br2 / FeBr3

3.

- HBr

CH3Br + H2O

CH3OH + HBr

15


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+

-I

-I

16


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. .

17


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1826 . .

NaOH

C6H5NH2

1833 . .

1841 . .

18


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www.indigopage.com

1897 .

1905 .

1800 .

1 000 000

20


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1842 . .. .

..

(1812 1880)

1845 .

, ,

(1818 1892)

19


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-

( )

( )

+

+ HCl

3Br2

- 3HBr

+

CH3CH2NH2 + HCl

CH3CH2NH3Cl

2,4,6-

Br2 / FeBr3

- HBr

NH3

CH3CH2NH2

24


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-

1856 .

(1838-1907)

1874 .

22


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1863 .

23


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OH

AdN

25


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,

26


6185069

AdN ,

27


6185069

!


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