Ventilation
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VENTILATION. NFPA Standard 1001 Fire Fighter Professional Qualifications - 2002. Objectives. Understand ventilation as a fire service tool Know the principles, advantages, and effects of ventilation (NFPA 1001:3-3.10a). Objectives.

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VENTILATION

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Ventilation

VENTILATION

NFPA Standard 1001

Fire Fighter Professional Qualifications - 2002


Objectives

Objectives

  • Understand ventilation as a fire service tool

  • Know the principles, advantages, and effects of ventilation (NFPA 1001:3-3.10a)


Objectives1

Objectives

  • Identify the considerations for proper ventilation (NFPA 1001:3-3.10a)

  • Identify the types of ventilation (NFPA 1001:3-3.10a, 4-3.2a)

  • Describe ventilation techniques (NFPA 1001:3-3.10a, 3-3.11a, 3-3.11b)


Objectives2

Objectives

  • Describe the need for roof ventilation (NFPA 1001:3-3.11a, 3-3.11b,4-3.2a)

  • Identify safety considerations when venting (NFPA 1001:3-3.10a)


Objectives3

Objectives

  • Describe the obstacles to ventilation (NFPA 1001:4-3.2a)

  • Identify the factors affecting ventilation

    Delmar, Firefighter’s Handbook, Chapter 18


Principles advantages and effects of ventilation

Ventilation is the systematic removal of the byproducts of combustion.

It relieves the structure of heat.

It channels smoke out of the structure.

It removes toxic gases from the structure.

Principles, Advantages, and Effects of Ventilation


Considerations for proper ventilation

Vertical ventilation is the removal of heat and smoke through vertical channels.

Horizontal ventilation is the removal of smoke and gases through horizontal openings.

Considerations for Proper Ventilation


Types of ventilation

Types of Ventilation

Natural

  • Opening of doors and windows

  • Cutting a hole in the roof


Types of ventilation1

Mechanical

Heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC)

Smoke fans

Positive pressure

Types of Ventilation


Types of ventilation2

Hydraulic

Fog stream out a window or other opening

Smooth bore with partially opened nozzle out a window or other opening

Types of Ventilation


Ventilation techniques

Break windows

Open doors

Rope and a tool

For ventilating upper floor windows from above

Hook or pike pole

Halligan

Axe

Ventilation Techniques


Ventilation techniques1

Portable ladder

Aerial ladder tip

Negative pressure ventilation

Positive pressure ventilation

Introduction opening should be larger than exhaust opening

Cone of air should be larger than opening

Ventilation Techniques


Roof ventilation

Quickest way is to use building features

Skylight

Scuttle cover

Bulkhead door

When making holes, cut directly over the fire when possible

Roof Ventilation


Roof ventilation1

Types of cuts

Expandable cut

Produces hole as large as needed

Roof Ventilation


Roof ventilation2

Louver cut

A series of cuts parallel to the roof joists, keeping them in the middle. When opened, they look like hinged louvers

Triangular cut

Good for Q-decking over open web bar joists

Roof Ventilation


Roof ventilation3

Trench cut or Strip cut

Defensive in design and execution

Used to cut off fire extension

Examination holes

Kerf cut – cutting blade lowered into roof material and pulled out

Triangular cut – three intersecting kerf cuts

Roof Ventilation


Safety considerations

Safety Considerations

  • Will ventilation permit fire to extend?

  • Will the escape route be cut off?

  • Will ventilation endanger others?

  • Work in teams


Obstacles to ventilation

Obstacles to Ventilation

Access

Security devices

Height

Unfamiliar building layout

Timing


Factors affecting ventilation

Factors Affecting Ventilation

Partial openings

Partially broken windows

Screens

Roof material


Factors affecting ventilation1

Factors Affecting Ventilation

Dropped or hanging ceilings

Building size

Weather

Opening windows


Lessons learned

Lessons Learned

Ventilation is a tool that is to be used like any other tool. It must be understood, used to its advantage, and applied carefully.


The end

The End


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