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VENTILATION. NFPA Standard 1001 Fire Fighter Professional Qualifications - 2002. Objectives. Understand ventilation as a fire service tool Know the principles, advantages, and effects of ventilation (NFPA 1001:3-3.10a). Objectives.

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NFPA Standard 1001

Fire Fighter Professional Qualifications - 2002


  • Understand ventilation as a fire service tool

  • Know the principles, advantages, and effects of ventilation (NFPA 1001:3-3.10a)


  • Identify the considerations for proper ventilation (NFPA 1001:3-3.10a)

  • Identify the types of ventilation (NFPA 1001:3-3.10a, 4-3.2a)

  • Describe ventilation techniques (NFPA 1001:3-3.10a, 3-3.11a, 3-3.11b)


  • Describe the need for roof ventilation (NFPA 1001:3-3.11a, 3-3.11b,4-3.2a)

  • Identify safety considerations when venting (NFPA 1001:3-3.10a)


  • Describe the obstacles to ventilation (NFPA 1001:4-3.2a)

  • Identify the factors affecting ventilation

    Delmar, Firefighter’s Handbook, Chapter 18

Ventilation is the systematic removal of the byproducts of combustion.

It relieves the structure of heat.

It channels smoke out of the structure.

It removes toxic gases from the structure.

Principles, Advantages, and Effects of Ventilation

Vertical ventilation is the removal of heat and smoke through vertical channels.

Horizontal ventilation is the removal of smoke and gases through horizontal openings.

Considerations for Proper Ventilation

Types of Ventilation


  • Opening of doors and windows

  • Cutting a hole in the roof


Heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC)

Smoke fans

Positive pressure

Types of Ventilation


Fog stream out a window or other opening

Smooth bore with partially opened nozzle out a window or other opening

Types of Ventilation

Break windows

Open doors

Rope and a tool

For ventilating upper floor windows from above

Hook or pike pole



Ventilation Techniques

Portable ladder

Aerial ladder tip

Negative pressure ventilation

Positive pressure ventilation

Introduction opening should be larger than exhaust opening

Cone of air should be larger than opening

Ventilation Techniques

Quickest way is to use building features


Scuttle cover

Bulkhead door

When making holes, cut directly over the fire when possible

Roof Ventilation

Types of cuts

Expandable cut

Produces hole as large as needed

Roof Ventilation

Louver cut

A series of cuts parallel to the roof joists, keeping them in the middle. When opened, they look like hinged louvers

Triangular cut

Good for Q-decking over open web bar joists

Roof Ventilation

Trench cut or Strip cut

Defensive in design and execution

Used to cut off fire extension

Examination holes

Kerf cut – cutting blade lowered into roof material and pulled out

Triangular cut – three intersecting kerf cuts

Roof Ventilation

Safety Considerations

  • Will ventilation permit fire to extend?

  • Will the escape route be cut off?

  • Will ventilation endanger others?

  • Work in teams

Obstacles to Ventilation


Security devices


Unfamiliar building layout


Factors Affecting Ventilation

Partial openings

Partially broken windows


Roof material

Factors Affecting Ventilation

Dropped or hanging ceilings

Building size


Opening windows

Lessons Learned

Ventilation is a tool that is to be used like any other tool. It must be understood, used to its advantage, and applied carefully.

The End

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