History of latin america
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History of Latin America. Colonizing Latin America. Lasted for over four hundred years, from 1492 to 1898 Two motivations: Trade Spread of the Catholic faith through indigenous conversions. Spanish Set up four Viceroyalties: New Spain New Granada Peru La Plata.

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History of Latin America

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History of Latin America


Colonizing Latin America

  • Lasted for over four hundred years, from 1492 to 1898

  • Two motivations:

  • Trade

  • Spread of the Catholic faith through indigenous conversions


  • Spanish Set up four Viceroyalties:

  • New Spain

  • New Granada

  • Peru

  • La Plata


Social Hierarchy in Latin America

Penninsulares

(men born in Spain)

Creoles

(Spaniards born in Latin America)

Mestizos

(mixed European & Indian ancestry)

Mulattos

(mixed European & African ancestry)

Indians

(of little economic value)

Africans

(majority enslaved)


The Economy in Colonial Latin America

  • based on the ideas of “Mercantilism”

  • Africans & American Indians used as slave labor

  • Lands are used for natural resources


Road to Revolution

  • Inspired by Enlightenment ideas

  • Creole discontent

  • Motivated by the “successful” American and French Revolutions.

  • Preoccupation of Spain & Portugal in fighting in other wars (the Napoleonic Wars)

  • Economic policies benefited Europeans at the expense of the native Latin Americans


EnlightenmentThinkers


Creole Discontent


Inspiration of American & French Revolutions

Declaration of the Rights of Man & of the Citizen, 1789

Declaration of Independence, 1776


Preoccupation of Spain & Portugal In Fighting Napoleonic Wars


Latin American Revolutions


Toussaint L’OuvetureLeads a Revolutionin Haiti(1804)


Haiti

  • French colony

    Date of Independence: 1804

    Independence Leaders:

  • Toussiant-Louverture (former slave)

  • Jean-Jaques Dessalines (Toussaint’s general)

    Haitian Independence:

    1791: slave revolt

    1801: Toussaint seized 2/3 of Haiti (frees slaves)

    1802: French troops arrive & agreement made to stop revolution

    1804: Dessalines starts revolution again and declares independence


Mexico

  • Spanish colony

    Date of Independence:

    Independence Leaders:

  • Miguel Hidalgo (priest/revolutionary leader)

  • José María Morelos (priest/revolutionary leader)

  • Agustín de Iturbide (Mexican general)

    Mexican Independence:

  • 1810: Hidalgo leads Mexican mestizos & Indians in revolt

  • 1811: Hidalgo captured & killed, Morelos assumes leadership

  • 1815: Morelos killed

  • 1820: Iturbide names himself emperor

  • 1823: Mexico becomes a republic


The “Muscle” of the Revolution

Bolivar coming from the North.

José de St. Martín and Bernard O’Higgins cross the Andes Mountains.


Bolivar & San Martin Fight for Independence


Argentina

  • Spanish colony

    Date of Independence: 1816

    Independence Leaders:

  • Jose de San Martin (Spanish military officer)

    Argentiaian Independence:

    1816= Creole colonist rebel & seize government

    1816= Martin declares independence


Chile

  • Spanish colony

    Date of Independence: 1817

    Independence Leaders:

  • Jose de San Martin

  • Bernardo O’Higgins (military officer)

    Chile Independence:

    1817= San Martin leads his army across the

    Andes into Chile

    1817= Joins forces with O’Higgins and defeat

    the Spanish and declare independence


Simón Bolivar: The “Brains”of theRevolution

  • Creole leader of the revolutions in Venezuela.

  • Spent time in Europe and the newly-independent United States.


Venezuela, Columbia, and Panama

  • Spanish colony

    Date of Independence: 1821/1822

    Independence Leaders:

  • Simon Bolivar (Venezuelan - Creole/military general)

    Gran Columbia Independence:

    1811= Venezuela declares independence

    1811-1821= Revolts against Spanish

    1821= Bolivar wins independence

    1821= Rebellion goes to Columbia, Ecuador,

    & Panama

    1822= Bolivar elected president; the new nation

    called Gran Columbia established


Bolivar’s Accomplishment


Peru

  • Spanish colony

    Date of Independence: 1824

    Independence Leaders:

  • Jose de San Martin

  • Simon Bolivar

    Peruvian Independence:

    1821= San Martin takes army to Lima, Peru to

    drive out the remaining Spanish

    1822= San Martin joins Bolivar/combines army

    1822= San Martin leaves for Europe

    1822= Carries rebellion to Columbia, Ecuador,

    and Panama

    1822= Bolivar defeats Spanish at Battle of Ayacucho


Simón Bolivar Meets José de San Martin


Bolivia

  • Spanish colony

    Date of Independence: 1825

    Independence Leaders:

  • Simon Bolivar

    Bolivian Independence:

    1824= Bolivar drives out the remaining Spanish

    from Peru

    1825= Upper Peru separates and names itself

    Bolivia (after Simon Bolivar)


Bolivar’s Failure

  • After uniting Venezuela, Columbia, & Ecuador into Gran Columbia, he left to help free the rest of Latin America

  • He died a year later, with his goal of uniting all of South America unfulfilled!


Brazil Freed from Portugal

  • The Portuguese royal family escaped Napoleon by fleeing to Brazil.

  • Pedro I set up a new, independent kingdom in 1821 when his father returned to Portugal.

  • Pedro II assumed full power after Pedro I abdicated his throne.


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