History of latin america
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History of Latin America. Colonizing Latin America. Lasted for over four hundred years, from 1492 to 1898 Two motivations: Trade Spread of the Catholic faith through indigenous conversions. Spanish Set up four Viceroyalties: New Spain New Granada Peru La Plata.

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History of Latin America

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History of latin america

History of Latin America


Colonizing latin america

Colonizing Latin America

  • Lasted for over four hundred years, from 1492 to 1898

  • Two motivations:

  • Trade

  • Spread of the Catholic faith through indigenous conversions


History of latin america

  • Spanish Set up four Viceroyalties:

  • New Spain

  • New Granada

  • Peru

  • La Plata


Social hierarchy in latin america

Social Hierarchy in Latin America

Penninsulares

(men born in Spain)

Creoles

(Spaniards born in Latin America)

Mestizos

(mixed European & Indian ancestry)

Mulattos

(mixed European & African ancestry)

Indians

(of little economic value)

Africans

(majority enslaved)


The economy in colonial latin america

The Economy in Colonial Latin America

  • based on the ideas of “Mercantilism”

  • Africans & American Indians used as slave labor

  • Lands are used for natural resources


Road to revolution

Road to Revolution

  • Inspired by Enlightenment ideas

  • Creole discontent

  • Motivated by the “successful” American and French Revolutions.

  • Preoccupation of Spain & Portugal in fighting in other wars (the Napoleonic Wars)

  • Economic policies benefited Europeans at the expense of the native Latin Americans


History of latin america

EnlightenmentThinkers


History of latin america

Creole Discontent


History of latin america

Inspiration of American & French Revolutions

Declaration of the Rights of Man & of the Citizen, 1789

Declaration of Independence, 1776


History of latin america

Preoccupation of Spain & Portugal In Fighting Napoleonic Wars


History of latin america

Latin American Revolutions


History of latin america

Toussaint L’OuvetureLeads a Revolutionin Haiti(1804)


History of latin america

Haiti

  • French colony

    Date of Independence: 1804

    Independence Leaders:

  • Toussiant-Louverture (former slave)

  • Jean-Jaques Dessalines (Toussaint’s general)

    Haitian Independence:

    1791: slave revolt

    1801: Toussaint seized 2/3 of Haiti (frees slaves)

    1802: French troops arrive & agreement made to stop revolution

    1804: Dessalines starts revolution again and declares independence


Mexico

Mexico

  • Spanish colony

    Date of Independence:

    Independence Leaders:

  • Miguel Hidalgo (priest/revolutionary leader)

  • José María Morelos (priest/revolutionary leader)

  • Agustín de Iturbide (Mexican general)

    Mexican Independence:

  • 1810: Hidalgo leads Mexican mestizos & Indians in revolt

  • 1811: Hidalgo captured & killed, Morelos assumes leadership

  • 1815: Morelos killed

  • 1820: Iturbide names himself emperor

  • 1823: Mexico becomes a republic


History of latin america

The “Muscle” of the Revolution

Bolivar coming from the North.

José de St. Martín and Bernard O’Higgins cross the Andes Mountains.


History of latin america

Bolivar & San Martin Fight for Independence


History of latin america

Argentina

  • Spanish colony

    Date of Independence: 1816

    Independence Leaders:

  • Jose de San Martin (Spanish military officer)

    Argentiaian Independence:

    1816= Creole colonist rebel & seize government

    1816= Martin declares independence


History of latin america

Chile

  • Spanish colony

    Date of Independence: 1817

    Independence Leaders:

  • Jose de San Martin

  • Bernardo O’Higgins (military officer)

    Chile Independence:

    1817= San Martin leads his army across the

    Andes into Chile

    1817= Joins forces with O’Higgins and defeat

    the Spanish and declare independence


History of latin america

Simón Bolivar: The “Brains”of theRevolution

  • Creole leader of the revolutions in Venezuela.

  • Spent time in Europe and the newly-independent United States.


History of latin america

Venezuela, Columbia, and Panama

  • Spanish colony

    Date of Independence: 1821/1822

    Independence Leaders:

  • Simon Bolivar (Venezuelan - Creole/military general)

    Gran Columbia Independence:

    1811= Venezuela declares independence

    1811-1821= Revolts against Spanish

    1821= Bolivar wins independence

    1821= Rebellion goes to Columbia, Ecuador,

    & Panama

    1822= Bolivar elected president; the new nation

    called Gran Columbia established


History of latin america

Bolivar’s Accomplishment


History of latin america

Peru

  • Spanish colony

    Date of Independence: 1824

    Independence Leaders:

  • Jose de San Martin

  • Simon Bolivar

    Peruvian Independence:

    1821= San Martin takes army to Lima, Peru to

    drive out the remaining Spanish

    1822= San Martin joins Bolivar/combines army

    1822= San Martin leaves for Europe

    1822= Carries rebellion to Columbia, Ecuador,

    and Panama

    1822= Bolivar defeats Spanish at Battle of Ayacucho


History of latin america

Simón Bolivar Meets José de San Martin


History of latin america

Bolivia

  • Spanish colony

    Date of Independence: 1825

    Independence Leaders:

  • Simon Bolivar

    Bolivian Independence:

    1824= Bolivar drives out the remaining Spanish

    from Peru

    1825= Upper Peru separates and names itself

    Bolivia (after Simon Bolivar)


History of latin america

Bolivar’s Failure

  • After uniting Venezuela, Columbia, & Ecuador into Gran Columbia, he left to help free the rest of Latin America

  • He died a year later, with his goal of uniting all of South America unfulfilled!


History of latin america

Brazil Freed from Portugal

  • The Portuguese royal family escaped Napoleon by fleeing to Brazil.

  • Pedro I set up a new, independent kingdom in 1821 when his father returned to Portugal.

  • Pedro II assumed full power after Pedro I abdicated his throne.


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