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CENG 241 Digital Design 1 Lecture 7. Amirali Baniasadi [email protected] 4-bit by 3-bit Binary Multiplier. B3 B2 B1 B0 A2 A1 A0 A0B3 A0B2 A0B1 A0B0 A1B3 A1B2 A1B1 A1B0 A2B3 A2B2 A2B1 A2B0.

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slide2

4-bit by 3-bit Binary Multiplier

B3 B2 B1 B0

A2 A1 A0

A0B3 A0B2 A0B1 A0B0

A1B3 A1B2 A1B1 A1B0

A2B3 A2B2 A2B1 A2B0

decimal adder
Decimal adder
  • When dealing with decimal numbers BCD code is used.
  • A decimal adders requires at least 9 inputs and 5 outputs.
  • BCD adder: each input does not exceed 9, the output can not exceed 19
  • How are decimal numbers presented in BCD?
  • Decimal Binary BCD
  • 9 1001 1001
  • 19 10011 (0001)(1001)
  • 1 9
decimal adder1
Decimal Adder
  • Decimal numbers should be represented in binary code number.
  • Example: BCD adder
  • Suppose we apply two BCD numbers to a binary adder then:
  • The result will be in binary and ranges from 0 through 19.
  • Binary sum: K(carry) Z8 Z4 Z2 Z1
  • BCD sum : C(carry) S8 S4 S2 S1
  • For numbers equal or less than 1001 binary and BCD are identical.
  • For numbers more than 1001, we should add 6(0110) to binary to get BCD.
  • example: 10011(binary) = 11001(BCD) =19
  • ADD 6 to correct.
slide5

BCD adder

Numbers that need correction (add 6) are:

01010 (10)

01011 (11)

01100 (12)

01101 (13)

01110 (14)

01111 (15)

10000 (16)

10001 (17)

10010 (18)

10011 (19)

Decides to add 6?

Adds 6

slide6

BCD adder

Numbers that need correction (add 6) are:

K Z8 Z4 Z2 Z1

0 1 0 1 0 (10)

0 1 0 1 1 (11)

0 1 1 0 0 (12)

0 1 1 0 1 (13)

0 1 1 1 0 (14)

0 1 1 1 1 (15)

1 0 0 0 0 (16)

1 0 0 0 1 (17)

1 0 0 1 0 (18)

1 0 0 1 1 (19)

C = K + Z8Z4 +Z8Z2

magnitude comparators
Magnitude Comparators
  • Compares two numbers, determines their relative magnitude.
  • We look at a 4-bit magnitude comparator;
  • A=A3A2A1A0, B=B3B2B1B0
  • Two numbers are equal if all bits are equal.
  • A=B if A3=B3 AND A2=B2 AND A1=B1 AND A0=B0
  • Xi= AiBi + Ai’Bi’ ; Ai=Bi Xi=1 (remember exclusive NOR?)
magnitude comparators1
Magnitude Comparators
  • How do we know if A>B?
  • 1.Compare bits starting from the most significant pair of digits
  • 2.If the two are equal, compare the next lower significant bits
  • 3.Continue until a pair of unequal digits are reached
  • 4.Once the unequal digits are reached, A>B if Ai=1 and Bi=0, A<B if Ai=0 and Bi = 1
  • A>B = A3B3’+X3A2B2’+X3X2A1B1’+X3X2X1A0B0’
  • A<B = A3’B3+X3A2’B2+X3X2A1’B1+X3X2X1A0’B0
  • Xi=1 if Ai=Bi
slide9

Magnitude Comparators

A3=B3 ?

X3A2’B2

decoders
Decoders
  • A decoder converts binary information from n input lines to a maximum of 2n output lines
  • Also known as n-to-m line decoders where m< 2n
  • Example 3-to-8 decoders.
decoders truth table
Decoders: Truth Table
  • X Y Z D0 D1 D2 D3 D4 D5 D6 D7
  • 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
  • 0 0 1 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0
  • 0 1 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0
  • 0 1 1 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0
  • 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0
  • 1 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0
  • 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0
  • 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1
slide13

2-to-4 Decoder: NAND implementation

Decoder is enabled when E=0

slide14

How to build bigger decoders?

We can combine two 3-to-8 decoders to build a 4-to-16 decoder.

Generates from

0000 to 0111

Generates from

1000 to 1111

combinational logic implementation
Combinational Logic implementation
  • A decoder provides the 2n minterms of n input variables.
  • Any function is can be expressed in sum of minterms.
  • Use a decoder to make the minterms and an external OR gate to make the sum.
  • Example: consider a full adder.
  • S(x,y,z) = Σ(1,2,4,7)
  • C(x,y,z) = Σ (3,5,6,7)
encoders
Encoders
  • Encoders perform the inverse operation of a decoder:
  • Encoders have 2n input lines and n output line.
  • Output lines generate the binary code corresponding to the input value.
encoders truth table
Encoders: Truth Table
  • OutputsInputs
  • X Y Z D0 D1 D2 D3 D4 D5 D6 D7
  • 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
  • 0 0 1 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0
  • 0 1 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0
  • 0 1 1 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0
  • 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0
  • 1 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0
  • 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0
  • 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1
  • z=D1+D3+D5+D7 y=D2+D3+D6+D7 x=D4+D5+D6+D7
priority encoders
Priority Encoders
  • Encoder limitations:
  • If two inputs are active, the output is undefined.
  • Solution: we need to take into account priority.
  • What if all inputs are 0?
  • Solution: we need a valid bit
  • Input Output
  • D0 D1 D2 D3 x y v
  • 0 0 0 0 X X 0
  • 1 0 0 0 0 0 1
  • X 1 0 0 0 1 1
  • X X 1 0 1 0 1
  • X X X 1 1 1 1
multiplexers
Multiplexers
  • Multiplexer: selects one binary input from many selections
  • example: 2-to-1 MUX
4 to 1 mux
4-to-1 MUX

Directs 1 of the 4 inputs to the output

multi bit selection logic
Multi-bit selection logic
  • Multiplexers can be combined with common selection inputs to support multi-bit selection logic
implementing boolean functions w mux
Implementing Boolean functions w/ MUX
  • General rules for implementing any Boolean function with n variables:
  • Use a multiplexer with n-1 selection inputs and 2 n-1 data inputs
  • List the truth tabel
  • Apply the first n-1 variables to the selection inputs of multiplexer
  • For each combination evaluate the output as a function of the last variable.
  • The function can be 0, 1 the variable or the complement of the variable.
summary
Summary
  • Reading up to page 156
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