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PRSPs and the role of Civil Society. Finnish Aid in a PRS Context Helsinki Workshop 19-22 May 2003. Plan for today. Priorities and questions from day 1 Civil Society and participation CS and the PRS cycle Some experience to date Opportunities and dangers of engagement

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prsps and the role of civil society

PRSPs and the role of Civil Society

Finnish Aid in a PRS Context

Helsinki Workshop

19-22 May 2003

plan for today
Plan for today
  • Priorities and questions from day 1
  • Civil Society and participation
  • CS and the PRS cycle
  • Some experience to date
  • Opportunities and dangers of engagement
  • Case studies- Vietnam, Ethiopia and Tanzania
what is civil society
What is Civil Society?

Term Civil Society is used to mean very different things…

  • Definitions
  • Legal frameworks
  • Typologies
slide4
Descriptive
  • 3rd sector of ‘associational life’ between State and Market
  • Includes: NGOs, trade unions, business associations, cooperatives, clubs, religious and interest groups, social movements, media and sometimes political parties
  • BUT in practice often just equated to NGOs
slide5
Normative
  • CS increases openness, democracy, transparency, accountability, participation, representation etc
  • Which it may… but NOT necessarily (e.g. Interahamwe, militant direct action organisations)
  • Means to an end/end in itself

Legal frameworks

  • Distinctly different traditions- licensing existence vs just regulating actions
typologies of csos
Typologies of CSOs
  • Membership or non-membership
  • Common interest- economic, sport, environment, ethnic…
  • Accountability- broad vs elite
  • Values- faith, ethics, social justice…
  • Location- local/international, northern/southern, rural/urban…
  • Scale- S, M, L, networks, coalitions…
  • Independence- set up by government (or donors or INGOs)
and by function
And by function…
  • Welfare/service delivery
  • Advocacy
  • Communication
  • Research
  • Monitoring/watchdogs
  • Representation…
what is participation
What is Participation?

Again, use to mean all kinds of things… common uses include

  • statement of openness
  • information sharing
  • qualitative data collection methodology
  • consultation on problems
  • consultation on solutions/policies
  • inclusion in design or decision making process
  • joint decision making
  • initiation and control by stakeholders

By whom? legitimacy, representation, expertise

opportunities to engage in the prsp process

Opportunities to engage in the PRSP process

Finnish Aid in a PRS Context

Helsinki Workshop

19-22 May 2003

reminder
Reminder

Policy

formulation

Financing

PRSP process:

Results oriented, evidence based

policy making?

Communication

Poverty

analysis

Monitoring and

evaluation

Policy

implementation

caveats
Caveats
  • Highly idealised and stylised version of process
  • PRSP is only one part of policy-making process
  • Civil society is only one influence on policy making process
  • Policy making is also heavily influenced by donors
  • Policy also influenced by domestic politics
  • Policy making also takes place at federal/subfederal/local level
poverty analysis
Poverty Analysis

Policy

formulation

Financing

  • Analysis from community/constituency
  • PPA/direct qual research
  • Issue based research and analysis

PRSP process:

the theory

Communication

Poverty

analysis

Monitoring and

evaluation

Monitoring

Policy

implementation

policy formulation
Policy formulation

Policy

formulation

Financing

  • Representing concerns of communities
  • constituencies/networks
  • Gathering opinion/comments on drafts
  • Produce formal statements/comments on drafts
  • Lobby/advocate for particular policy positions
  • Promoting alternative strategies

PRSP process:

the theory

Communication

Poverty

analysis

Monitoring

Policy

implementation

financing
Financing

Policy

formulation

Financing

  • Participating in budget formulation
  • Ensuring large CSO expenditures are
  • recognised in the budget
  • Lobbying on financing plan
  • e.g. tax, aid, cost recovery

PRSP process:

the theory

Communication

Poverty

analysis

Monitoring

Policy

implementation

communication
Communication
  • Providing information on
  • broader PRS process
  • Disseminating PRS documents
  • Preparing or digesting the PRSP
  • for a specific audience
  • Disseminating digested version
  • Encouraging media to take up issues
  • Collating feedbackand
  • communicating to others

Policy

formulation

Financing

PRSP process:

the theory

Communication

Poverty

analysis

Monitoring

Policy

implementation

policy implementation
Policy implementation
  • Technical assistance to
  • government officials
  • and service providers
  • Continuing to provide services
  • but within PRS framework
  • Running pilot projects
  • within PRS framework
  • Implementation of (new)
  • poverty programmes
  • within PRS
  • Assisting communities
  • to access PRS funds

Policy

formulation

Financing

PRSP process:

the theory

Communication

Poverty

analysis

Monitoring

Policy

implementation

monitoring and evaluation
Monitoring and Evaluation
  • Participating in design
  • of m&e systems
  • Taking part in
  • monitoring/evaluation of…
  • Aid flows/donor behaviour
  • PRSP process
  • Policy commitments
  • Budget processes
  • Inputs/outputs
  • Poverty outcomes

Policy

formulation

Financing

PRSP process:

the theory

Communication

Poverty

analysis

Monitoring and

evaluation

Monitoring

Policy

implementation

policy formulation process
Policy formulation process

Policy

formulation

Financing

PRSP process:

Results oriented, evidence based

policy making?

Communication

Poverty

analysis

Policy

implementation

Monitoring and

evaluation

experiences of civil society participation in prsps

Experiences of civil society participation in PRSPs

Finnish Aid in a PRS Context

Helsinki Workshop

19-22 May 2003

over the past 3 years in prsp countries
Over the past 3 years in PRSP countries…
  • Many different approaches have been tried by CSOs to engage with and influence PRSPs
  • Trial and error
  • Learning and capacity development
  • Experience-sharing between countries
  • However, expectations have been raised…
  • There is some disillusionment…
  • But broad consensus there is more space
in deciding whether how to engage csos consider
In deciding whether/how to engage, CSOs consider…
  • Are there official spaces for participation?
  • Govt-CS relations
  • What’s the potential for policy influence?
  • Level of awareness among the public/ CSO constituencies
  • Positions of donors – allies or adversaries?
  • Should approaches change over time?
  • Capacity of civil society to influence
insider approaches
Insider approaches…
  • Involvement in working groups/drafting committee eg MEJN, Malawi
  • Commenting on draft docs eg Cambodia NGO Forum
  • Attending consultation workshops eg CRDA, Ethiopia
  • Technical assistance to ministries on process eg Action Aid, Rwanda
  • Collaboration on implementation eg UDN in Poverty Action Fund, Uganda
outsider approaches
Outsider approaches
  • Alternative consultation processes eg Jubileo 2000 Bolivia
  • Proposing alternative policies eg INTERFOROS alternative PRSP, Honduras
  • Critiquing processes eg CA case studies, open letters from Bangladeshi CSOs
  • Using the media eg Uganda Debt Network
  • Conflictive – civil unrest eg Bolivia 2000
involving communities
Involving communities
  • Raising awareness of PRSP eg Swahili version of PRSP, Tanzania; radio programmes
  • Community analysis of poverty eg PPA in Vietnam, Voices of the Poor in Yemen
  • Community consultations on policy eg policy options discussions, Rwanda
  • Community monitoring eg HIPC-Watch Ghana, UDN in Uganda
developing cs capacity
Developing CS capacity
  • Drawing-in organisations that don’t normally work on policy ie churches, service delivery NGOs
  • Workshops on advocacy skills eg CA/Trocaire in Rwanda
  • Local policy NGOs working with others to broaden base of skilled organisations eg UDN, Uganda
  • Training of local activists eg MEJN community budget monitoring trainings
  • Economic literacy skills ie budget analysis and connection with policy eg ISODEC, Ghana
working collaboratively
Working collaboratively
  • Forming networks and coalitions - nationally eg ZIMCOD in Zimbabwe, internationally eg AFRODAD
  • Speaking with one voice to increase influence eg Bolivia CSOs reject PRSP
  • Greater access eg CRDA, Ethiopia
  • Thematic working groups as first port of call for government eg CHAM, Malawi
obstacles to participation
Obstacles to participation
  • Government suspicions of CS eg initially in Malawi
  • Lack of capacity and co-ordination among CSOs
  • Lack of policy influence of CSO contributions and results of participation processes
  • Women’s participation limited eg most places! UK Gender and Devt Report eg Tanzania
  • Rush to access HIPC resources eg Mozambique
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