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Department of Pharmaceutics and Industrial Pharmacy Prelab 1 Presented by : Osama Saher. Measuring. Measuring Cup (Cup Measure) For adjustment of final volume only *. Graduated Cylinder (Cylindrical measure). Prescriptions are best written in latin language, WHY?

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Department of Pharmaceutics and Industrial Pharmacy Prelab 1 Presented by : Osama Saher

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Department of Pharmaceutics and Industrial Pharmacy

Prelab 1

Presented by :

Osama Saher


Measuring

Measuring Cup

(Cup Measure)

For adjustment of final volume only *

Graduated Cylinder

(Cylindrical measure)


Prescriptions are best written in latin language, WHY?

1) It is language of medical science all-over the world.

2) Latin names are definite with no mis-interpretation

3) unknown by patients thus prevent worry and fear


Simple Solutions

  • They are liquid dosage forms prepared by dissolving soluble substances in an aqueous or non aqueous vehicle.

  • Water soluble substances may be either:


General Method for Preparation of solutions


1)Ammonium chloride

Ammonium chloride 4 g[A.C., expectorant]

Liquid extract of liquorice5 ml [Mucolytic, expectorant]

Syrup 50 ml[Sweetening agent]

WaterQ.S to 100 ml[Vehicle (before to *)]

Fiat: Cough Syrup

Sig: 5 ml t.d.s.

Use: For Cough

This applies to all SOLUTIONS

Calculations

Volume of water (vehicle) = 100 - (5 + 50) = 45 ml

¾ Vehicle = ¾ * 45 = 33.75 ≈ 35 ml


0.000 g

Procedure

4 g amm.

chloride

Balance

35 ml Water

Cup measure

Cup measure

Stirring

Filter on cotton wetted with water *

If turbid, filter

*Not dripping water

*Never filter a colored solution so filter before the coloring agent addition


Transfer clear solution to cup measure

5 ml

Ext. of liquorice

50 ml

Syrup

Water

Adjust volume

to 100 ml

Transfer to

a bottle


Label

The Cough Syrup

One teaspoonful to be taken three times daily.

Fiat: Cough Syrup

Sig: 5 ml t.d.s.

1.White label*(enter the gut) /RED*

2. Central title from Fiat.

3. All with capital letter

4.Underline the title

5.Leave paragraph space before the first word.

Note :

Teaspoonful:

One word

Spoonful with oo and one l.

6.First word starts with capital letter

7.Write dose

8.Write frequency

9.Must end with a full stop.

10. All numbers are written in letters.


2) Ferrous Fumarate

Ferrous Fumarate5 g [A.C., antianeamic]

Tr. of nux-vomica 3 ml[Bitter stomachic]

Syrup 10 ml[Sweetening agent]

Water to 90 ml[Vehicle]

Fiat : Mist.

Sig.: 15 ml P.C.

Calculations

Volume of water (vehicle) = 90 - (10 + 3) = 77 ml

¾ Vehicle = ¾ x 77 = 57.5 ≈ 60 ml


3 ml

Tr. Nux-vomica

0.000 g

10 ml

Syrup

Procedure

Water

Sprinkle 5 g ferrous fumarate with stirring

Balance

60 ml Water

Cup measure

Adjust

volume

to 90 ml


Transfer to a bottle

Precautions

Sprinkle ferrous fumarate at the center of the vehicle to prevent the formation of sticky mass which is difficult to be dissolved.

No filtration. …why??? (A: colored solution)


White lable.

Label

The Mixture

One tablespoonful to be taken after meals.

Fiat : Mist.

Sig.: 15 ml P.C.


3) Phenobarbital elixir

  • ℞ Elixir: It is clear flavored, sweetened hydroalcoholic solution intended for oral use.

    Phenobarbital 0.4 gm (0.2 g)(A.C. tranquilizer)

    Orange oil 0.1 ml (0.05 ml)(Flavoring agent)

    Alcohol 25.6 ml (12.8 ml)(Solvent for phenobarbital)

    Glycerin 35 ml (17.5 ml)(Co-solvent)

    Sucrose 2 gm (1 g) (Sweetening agent)

    Water q.s. 100 ml (50 ml)(Vehicle)

    Fiat : Elixir

    Mitte : 50 ml (F = 50/100 = 0.5)

    Sig.: ʒio.n.

    Use: sedative in epilepsy

prescribed

Required

F=Required /prescribed

Calculations

Factor = 50 / 100 = 0.5

Volume of water (vehicle) = 50 - (12.8 + 17.5) = 19.7 ml

¾ Vehicle = ¾ x 20 = 15 ml


17.5 ml

Glycerin

12.8 ml

Alcohol

Procedure

0.000 g

0.000 g

2 drops Orange

oil

15 ml Water

0.2 g phenobarbital

with stirring

1 g sucrose with stirring (if turbid, filter)

Balance

Balance


Adjust volume to 50 ml

with water

Portion wise

with stirring

Aqueous Solution

Alcoholic

Solution

Transfer to

a bottle


  • Precautions

  • Aqueous solution is added to the alcoholic one not the reverse to:

  • To prevent volatilization of alcohol

  • To prevent precipitation of alcohol-soluble substances by dilution.

Label

White lable.

The Elixir

One teaspoonful to be taken every night.

  • Fiat : Elixir

  • Sig.: ʒio.n.


ROMAN NUMBERS


ROMAN NUMBERS


Rules of ROMAN numbers:

1) When the left letter is ≥ 1st letter  (+) SUM


2) When the left letter is  1st letter  (-) SUBTRACT


I, X and C are called SUBTRACTORS

i.e. can be subtracted only from the next higher two values

i : can be subtracted only from V and X

X: can be subtracted only from L and C

C: can be subtracted only from D and M

Example:

= xLix not iL

95 = XCV not vC

99 =Xcix not iC

i

X

L

C

D

M

V


2) Write the following in arabic numbers

  • X<L

  • L-X=40

  • V>I

  • 5+1+1+1=8

  • 40+8=48

Hundreds

units

Tens

Thousands

  • C<M=

  • M-C=

  • 1000-100 =900

  • LXXX=

  • 50+10+10+10=80

  • I<V=

  • V-I=

  • 5-1=4

  • M=1000


Practical Problems

1) Write the following in roman numbers

  • 10+8

  • 8+10

  • 10=X

  • 8=5+3

  • 8=V+ III

  • XVIII


Practical Problems

1) Write the following in roman numbers

  • 1000=M

  • 1000+900+80+4

  • 900=1000-100

  • =CM

  • 80=50+10+10+10

  • 80=100-20

  • 4=5-1

  • =iv

  • 80=LXXX


ROMAN NUMBERS


Lab Tools you must bring

1- clean Lab Coat (white color) بالطو ابيض

2- Scissors (to trim the label)مقص

3- Your ID 2013-2014 كارنيه الكلية

4-problems next Tuesday

5-prelab source.

6-weighing paper


  • You can ask us at any time

  • and

  • We can ask you at ANY TIME

THANK YOU & GOOD LUCK


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