Planning for nature tourism handling the conflict between use and conservation
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Planning for nature tourism - handling the conflict between use and conservation. Hans-Georg Wallentinus Swedish EIA Centre Uppsala. Eco tourism in Nicaragua. Mombacho Volcano

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Planning for nature tourism handling the conflict between use and conservation

Planning for nature tourism - handling the conflict between use and conservation

Hans-Georg Wallentinus

Swedish EIA Centre

Uppsala


Eco tourism in nicaragua
Eco tourism in Nicaragua use and conservation

  • Mombacho Volcano

  • Managed by an NGO, several persons in the staff. Information centre. Cars going up the vulcano at regular intervals. Established around year 2000.

  • Datanlí - El Diablo

  • Managed by the EPA. Few persons in the staff, but several local farmers engaged. No regular traffic to the site. Small houses for camping built this year. Established 2005.


Calculation of visitor capacity
Calculation of visitor capacity use and conservation

  • Visitor capacity (VCC) works as a potential strategy to reduce recreational impacts in protected areas

  • Visitor capacity is considered at three consecutive levels:

  • Physical carrying capacity (PCC)

  • Real carrying capacity (RCC)

  • Effective carrying capacity (ECC)

  • FCC > RCC ≥ ECC


Physical carrying capacity
Physical Carrying Capacity use and conservation

  • FCC = S/sp * NV; NV = Hv/tv

  • S = available surface

  • sp = area used by one person

  • NV = number of times a place can be visited each day

  • Hv = Open hours

  • tv = time required to walk a trail


Real carrying capacity
Real Carrying Capacity use and conservation

  • The RCC is the maximum number of visits that is possible after applying a number of correction factors, like:

  • social factor,

  • erodability,

  • accessibility,

  • inundated sections, and

  • temporal closing

  • These factors are calculated after field surveys


Management capacity mc
Management Capacity (MC) use and conservation

  • MC = (infrastructure + equipment + personnel)*100/3


Effective carrying capacity
Effective Carrying Capacity use and conservation

  • ECC = RCC * MC


Carrying capacity visits day
Carrying Capacity (visits/day) use and conservation


Carrying capacity cont
Carrying Capacity, cont. use and conservation


Carrying capacity datanl el diablo
Carrying Capacity, Datanlí – El Diablo use and conservation

  • Three paths having FCC: 7358, 8611, and 7846

  • Factors: social, erodability, accessibility, inundated, precipitation, and fauna

  • Due to low numbers in erodability, accessibility and fauna the Real Carrying Capacity is only: 64, 92 and 235

  • Management capacity is also lower: 62,34%

  • Effective Carrying Capacity is therefore still lower: 40, 57, and 146


Remarks 1
Remarks 1 use and conservation

  • The number of visitors to Mombacho is rapidly increasing. The carrying capacity is soon reached. After that a restriction must be put on the number of visitors, especially the (noisy?) students, allowed per day. This is similar to national parks in USA.


Remarks 2
Remarks 2 use and conservation

  • The ECC of Datalí – El Diablo should be a guiding figure. Special attention should be paid to erosion (no protective cover like in Mombacho.


Old saying from the deep forests
Old saying from the deep forests: use and conservation

  • A real eco tourist is a person that gets angry when he meets another person on a trail in the fjeld area

  • But…

  • An eco tourist does not need to be an environmentally sound tourist


Accessibility
Accessibility use and conservation

  • Sweden has the ”customary law” of the Right of common access to land (since the days of the Vikings) meaning that people are allowed to walk on private properties unless you disturb the people at their homes.

  • This makes the pressure lower on rural areas in Sweden than in countries where only areas especially allowed for common access are available


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