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Wind-Diesel & H 2 Activities in Canada March 10, 2011 Carl Brothers, P.Eng., PowerPoint PPT Presentation


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Wind-Diesel & H 2 Activities in Canada March 10, 2011 Carl Brothers, P.Eng., Frontier Power Systems. Ramea Wind-Diesel Project Ramea, NL. Ramea Project Widely Reported Previously. Original Objective Select a major Canadian utility with isolated communities and influence among utilities

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Wind-Diesel & H 2 Activities in Canada March 10, 2011 Carl Brothers, P.Eng.,

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Wind diesel h 2 activities in canada march 10 2011 carl brothers p eng

  • Wind-Diesel & H2

  • Activities in Canada

  • March 10, 2011

  • Carl Brothers, P.Eng.,

  • Frontier Power Systems

Ramea Wind-Diesel Project

Ramea, NL


Ramea project widely reported previously

Ramea ProjectWidely Reported Previously

Original Objective

  • Select a major Canadian utility with isolated communities and influence among utilities

  • Demonstrate that

    • Wind technology is reliable

    • Wind and diesel systems are compatible

    • Economics can work under appropriate circumstances

  • Set the stage for subsequent economic projects

    Results

  • Project has been in operation since 2004

  • NL Hydro has installed additional wind capacity and a wind hydrogen project in same community in 2009

  • Appear to be believers!!


Windmatic wm15s

Windmatic WM15S

  • Reliable mid-80s Danish turbine

  • 15 meter rotor

  • Three blade, stall regulated

  • Upwind design, Forced Yaw

  • 25 meter free-standing tower

  • Re-manufactured by Frontier

  • Why re-man turbines? $$$$

  • Total Project Costs

    • $1,300,000 < $3,500/kW

      (Target price assumed to be marketable)


Ramea operation

Ramea Operation


Ramea operation1

Ramea Operation


Operational results

Operational Results

  • 400 kW wind on 700 kW load has visible impact on diesels

  • Voltage quality issues during connection

    • Improved with recent changes

  • Frequency stability affected but within limits

    • +/-0.01Hz. Variation no wind

    • +/-0.1 Hz. Variation with 400 kW wind

  • Fuel savings have been less than expected

    • Reliability issues on less than fully re-conditioned turbines

    • Modest Loads / Big Diesels

    • Limited land base increased array losses

  • Banks still getting paid!


  • Wind hydrogen projects in canada

    Wind – Hydrogen Projects in Canada

    • Ramea Wind Hydrogen Project

      • To existing wind and diesel plants NL Hydro added:

      • 3 – NW100 turbines

      • Electrolyzer and storage

      • Hydrogen Power Gensets

      • Medium penetration operation (diesel always on)

    • PEI Wind Hydrogen Village

      • High Penetration Operation

      • More aggressive and more challenging

      • Ultimately where we want to be

      • Stabilizing the grid is the challenge


    Looking ahead

    Looking Ahead

    Are tanks farms likely to be a practical and affordable part of the Arctic landscape in 30 years?

    If not, what?


    Wind diesel h 2 activities in canada march 10 2011 carl brothers p eng

    Short Term Energy Storage

    Attenuates Short Term Fluctuations in Wind Power


    Wind diesel h 2 activities in canada march 10 2011 carl brothers p eng

    Long Term Energy Storage


    Wind diesel h 2 activities in canada march 10 2011 carl brothers p eng

    Long Term Energy Storage


    Wind diesel h 2 activities in canada march 10 2011 carl brothers p eng

    ~ Cape Dorset ~ (Community Energy Requirements)

    l/yrEff’yMWh%

    • Electricity1,614,16932% 5,630 23

    • Heating 1,904,37480% 16,606 67

    • Motive Diesel283,69530% 928 4

    • Gasoline463,16820% 1,0104

    • Jet A1 249,37520% 5442

    • Total 4,514,780 24,717


    Wind diesel h 2 activities in canada march 10 2011 carl brothers p eng

    Cape Dorset ~ Estimated Wind Generation vs Load ~

    5,900MWh

    1,375 MWh

    5,500 MWh


    Energy storage needed for significant oil displacement

    Energy Storage needed for significant oil displacement

    • Short Term (Seconds - hours)

      • (Seconds – minutes) Flywheels, batteries

      • (Hours ) Batteries

    • Long term (Days)

      • Batteries

        • Costs and life uncertain

        • Potential resource constraints for large deployment

      • Hydrogen?

        • Cost challenges

        • Round trip efficiency challenges


    Conversion to hydrogen electrolyzers

    Conversion to Hydrogen - Electrolyzers

    • Bi-polar units

      • More efficient

      • Lower ramp rates

    • Uni-polar units

      • Slightly lower efficiency

      • Much more robust

      • Supposedly extremely responsive (needed for frequency control)

      • Higher ramp rates should provide frequency control

        • Not quite the case

    • New bi-polarelectrolyzer design has potential to increase ramp rates – not yet commercial

      • Unlikely to improve conversion rates


    Storage

    Storage

    • Medium pressure storage will very expensive for isolated communities

    • Are there low pressure alternatives?


    Reconversion to electricity

    Reconversion to electricity

    • Fuel cells have recent pleasant surprises

      • Improved life; improved efficiency, reduced costs

      • Still some way to go on all three fronts

    • Automotive based engines

      • May offer an economic alternative

      • Diesel plant operators will be sceptical of spark ignition

    • Bi-fuel technology may offer a bridging technology until fuel cells ready

      • Conventional diesel with standard performance

      • Significant displacement at intermediate loads


    Wind diesel h 2 activities in canada march 10 2011 carl brothers p eng

    ~ Bi-fuel Diesel Displacement ~


    Current thoughts on h 2

    Current Thoughts on H2

    • Many technical and logistical issues to resolve

      • R&D and demo projects are essential to do this

    • Technology pathway is not yet defined – and not clear there is one

    • Current round trip efficiency won’t find economic application or excitement in our careers

    • Still 1 MWh H2 ~= 1 MWh Diesel Fuel


    Wind diesel h 2 activities in canada march 10 2011 carl brothers p eng

    Primary Components Hydrogen Village

    Water Treatment

    Power Supply

    Gas Control Panel

    Electrolyzer

    Gas Holder

    Genset

    Compressors

    Coolers

    Storage


    Current status

    Current Status

    • Field Testing frustrated by wind capacity

      • 250 kW of small wind capacity available this week

    • Field tests to start mid-March – End April

    • Application for pilot project in collaboration with Nunavut under review

    • Hopeful project can move forward to advance wind-diesel advanced wind-storage technology


    Cape dorset conceptual layout

    ~ Cape Dorset – Conceptual Layout ~


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