Breadfruit
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BREADFRUIT

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Breadfruit

BREADFRUIT

Breadfruit (Artocarpus altilis) is a member of the Moraceae (fig) family. This handsome evergreen tree originated in the South Pacific and is now found throughout the tropics. Maturing at 15 to 20 meters tall or greater it can produce fruits for 50 years or more. The massive trunk may attain a 2 to 3 meter girth and depending on the variety; it either slightly flares at the base or forms narrow buttresses. The luxurious foliage consists of large, glossy dark-green leaves that range from entire to deeply dissected. Fruits are usually round, oval, or elongate and weigh from 0.25 to 5.5 kg. The creamy white or pale yellow flesh, when roasted, is said to have the texture and fragrance of fresh baked bread, giving the tree its name. Breadfruit is usually seedless but there are also many varieties with seeds.

Artocarpus altilis


Breadfruit

  • Distribution: Originated on Raiatea and rare elsewhere in the Society Islands. Introduced to the University of the West Indies in 1990.

  • Fruit Attributes:

    • Shape: RoundWeight: 0.5-1.49 kg, Avg. 1.02 kgSize: 10-14 cm long, 10-16 cm wide, Avg. 13 x 13 cm

    • No Seeds

  • Season:

    • August-February, peak October-January, few fruits March-April

  • Notes: The skin color of this unusual variety is pinkish or orange when mature. The white flesh is solid and dense and has a firm texture when cooked. It has good potential for commercial production of chips.


Breadfruit

  • Distribution: All varieties of breadfruit in Guam and the Mariana Islands are called lemae.

  • Fruit Attributes:

    • Shape: RoundWeight: 2.24-2.55 kg, Avg. 2.39 kgSize: Avg. 18 x 18 cmNo SeedsSeason: July-March

  • Notes: The white flesh is solid and dense and has a firm texture when cooked. It has good potential for chips or other commercial products.


Breadfruit

  • Distribution: Maafala is a common and popular variety grown throughout Polynesia and has been introduced to Pohnpei, Kosrae, and Tuvalu. Introduced to the University of the West Indies in 1990.

  • Fruit Attributes:

    • Shape: OvalWeight: 0.63-1.03 kg, Avg. 0.79 kgSize: 12-16 cm long, 10-13 cm wide, Avg. 14 x 11 cmNone to a few seeds

  • Season:

    • July-March, peak August-September, few fruits May-June

  • Notes: One of the small-fruited varieties. The white flesh is solid and dense and has a firm texture when cooked. The Samoa Ministry of Agriculture began exporting maafala to New Zealand in 2003.


Breadfruit

  • Distribution: This popular variety is cultivated throughout Polynesia and on the island of Kosrae, Federated States of Micronesia. It is occasionally found in Fiji.

  • Fruit Attributes:

    • Shape: OvalWeight: 1.48-3.53 kg, Avg. 2.67 kgSize: 16-26 cm long, 14-19 cm wide, Avg. 20 x 14 cmNo Seeds

  • Season:

    • July-March, peak October-December,few fruits April-June

  • Notes: Known as Maopo in Samoa and Tonga, Rare autia or Hamoa in the Society Islands, Mei aukape in the Marquesas, Sra fon in Kosrae, and Uto lolo in Fiji. The white flesh is solid and dense and has a firm texture when cooked. It has good potential for commercial production of chips. The Samoa Ministry of Agriculture began exporting maopo to New Zealand in 2003.


Breadfruit

  • Distribution: Mei arephe grows on Pohnpei in the Federated States of Micronesia.

  • Fruit Attributes:

    • Shape: Blocky oblongWeight: 0.79-1.25 kg, Avg. 1.03 kgSize: 14-20 cm long, 11-13 cm wide, Avg. 17 x 12 cmNo Seeds

  • Season:

    • February-September, peak July-September,few fruits January-February

  • Notes: The pale,cream-colored flesh of mei arephe is not densely fused and is relatively light-weight for its size. The fruit is usually baked or roasted and has a soft, creamy texture when cooked.


Breadfruit

  • Distribution: Meion grows on Chuuk in the Federated States of Micronesia. The name on means ease, because of the ease in pounding the cooked fruit during preparation.

  • Fruit Attributes:

    • Shape: OblongWeight: 2.27-3.29 kg, Avg. 2.85 kgSize: 22-27 cm long, 16-18 cm wide, Avg. 24 x 17 cmNo Seeds

  • Season:

    • March-August

  • Notes: Meion is a popular early variety in Chuuk. It is best boiled or steamed and is typically pounded to make kon. The light yellow flesh is soft and creamy when cooked


Breadfruit

  • Distribution: Mei tehid originated on Pohnpei, Federated States of Micronesia, and has recently been introduced to Palau and Kosrae. Introduced to the University of the West Indies in 1990.

  • Fruit Attributes:

    • Shape: RoundWeight: 0.86-2.05 kg, Avg. 1.27 kgSize: 13-20 cm long, 12-15 cm wide, Avg. 15 x 14 cmNo Seeds

  • Season:

    • July-March, few fruits April-May

  • Notes: Mei tehid has an attractive entire leaf with a rounded tip with scalloped edges. The white flesh is solid and dense and has a firm texture when cooked.


Breadfruit

  • Distribution: Pohnpei and Kosrae (where it is known as Ikunlal), Federated States of Micronesia. Introduced to the University of the West Indies in 1990.

  • Fruit Attributes:

    • Shape: OvalWeight: 0.48-1.08 kg, Avg. 0.76 kgSize: 10-15 cm long, 9-13 cm wide, Avg. 13 x 11 cmNo Seeds

  • Season:

    • June-January, few fruits February

  • Notes: Typically a small tree with the smallest fruits of any variety. Mei uhwp is best cooked by baking or roasting. When steamed or boiled the light yellow flesh is tender and soft and easy to mash.


Breadfruit

  • Distribution: Mein padahk (butatak, betaaktak) is well adapted to atoll conditions and is important throughout the Federated States of Micronesia and the Marshall Islands. Introduced to the University of the West Indies in 1990.

  • Fruit Attributes:

    • Shape: Oval, heart-shapedWeight: 0.72-2.03 kg, Avg. 1.13 kgSize: 12-24 cm long, 11-16 cm wide, Avg. 16 x 13 cmNo Seeds

  • Season:

    • July-December, peak July-October, second crop February-April, few fruits available all year

  • Notes: The pale yellow flesh of mein padahk is not densely fused and is relatively light-weight for its size. The fruit is usually baked or roasted and has a soft


Breadfruit

  • Distribution: Otea grows in the Society Islands. Introduced to the University of the West Indies in 1990.

  • Fruit Attributes:

    • Shape: RoundWeight: 1.28-2.5 kg, Avg. 1.8 kgSize: 14-18 cm long, 13-18 cm wide, Avg. 16 x 16 cmNo Seeds

  • Season:

    • August-February, peak October-January,few fruits April-June

  • Notes: The pale yellow, creamy flesh is solid and dense and has a firm, yet tender, texture when cooked. It has good potential for commercial production of chips.


Breadfruit

  • Distribution: Piipiia grows in the Society Islands. Introduced to the University of the West Indies in 1990.

  • Fruit Attributes:

    • Shape: RoundWeight: 1.02-2.15 kg, Avg. 1.42 kgSize: 13-18 cm long, 13-18 cm wide, Avg. 16 x 15 cmNo Seeds

  • Season:

    • August-December, second crop February-May,few fruits June-July

  • Notes: The white flesh of piipiia is not densely fused and is relatively lightweight. The fruit is usually baked or roasted and has a soft, creamy texture when cooked.


Breadfruit

  • Distribution: Puaa grows in the Society Islands. Introduced to the University of the West Indies in 1990.

  • Fruit Attributes:

    • Shape: RoundWeight: 0.98-2.43 kg, Avg. 1.75 kgSize: 12-19 cm long, 13-17 wide, Avg. 16 x 16 cmNo Seeds

  • Season:

    • July-January, few fruits February-March

  • Notes: The pale-yellow flesh is solid and dense and has a firm, yet tender, texture when cooked. It is best steamed or boiled.


Breadfruit

  • Distribution: Puou is a common and popular variety grown throughout Polynesia and parts of Melanesia. Introduced to the University of the West Indies in 1990.

  • Fruit Attributes:

    • Shape: Round to rounded oblongWeight: 1.2-2.46 kg, Avg. 1.86 kgSize: 13-22 cm long, 11-18 cm wide, Avg. 17 x 16 cmNone to a few seeds

  • Season:

    • July-March, peak November-January,few fruits April-May

  • Notes: Puou tends to produce numerous root shoots. The white flesh is solid and dense and has a firm, yet tender, texture when cooked. The Samoa Ministry of Agriculture began exporting this variety to New Zealand in 2003.


Breadfruit

  • Distribution: Rotuma grows in the Society Islands and is probably an introduction from the island of Rotuma.

  • Fruit Attributes:

    • Shape: Round to ovalWeight: 1.24-2.64 kg, Avg. 1.88 kgSize: 14-22 cm long, 14-18 cm wide, Avg. 17 x 16 cmNo Seeds

  • Season:

    • August-January, peak September-January,few fruits March-May

  • Notes: The light-yellow flesh of Rotuma is not densely fused. The fruit is usually baked or roasted and has a soft, creamy texture when cooked.


Breadfruit

  • Distribution: Toneno grows in the Society Islands. Introduced to the University of the West Indies in 1990.

  • Fruit Attributes:

    • Shape: ElongateWeight: 0.95-2.23 kg, Avg. 1.56 kgSize: 15-25 cm long, 10-14 cm wide, Avg. 21 x 12 cmNo Seeds

  • Season:

    • December-June, few fruits July-August

  • Notes: The white flesh of toneno is not densely fused. The fruit is usually baked or roasted and has a loose, slightly stringy texture when cooked.


Breadfruit

  • Distribution: All varieties of breadfruit in Hawaii are called ulu.

  • Fruit Attributes:

    • Shape: RoundWeight: 0.52-1.73 kg, Avg. 1.3 kgSize: 13-22 cm long, 9-15 cm wide, Avg. 15 x 14 cmNo Seeds

  • Season:

    • July-January, few fruits February and June

  • Notes: The white flesh is solid and dense and has a firm texture when cooked. It has good potential for commercial production of chips.


Breadfruit

  • Distribution: Originally from Rotuma, this variety was collected from the South Pacific Commissions former regional breadfruit collection at Vailima, Upolu, Samoa.

  • Fruit Attributes:

    • Shape: RoundWeight: 1.2-2.77 kg, Avg. 1.84 kgSize: 16-19 cm long, 14-20 cm wide, Avg. 17 x 17 cmSeeds

  • Season:

    • August-January, peak October-December,few fruits available all year

  • Notes: The yellow flesh of ulu fiti is tender and slightly sweet when mature. Has a tender, moist texture when cooked. Excellent for chips or French fries.


Breadfruit

  • Distribution: Ulu tala is from Samoa and also grows in other Polynesian islands. Known as puero in the Society Islands. Introduced to the University of the West Indies in 1990.

  • Fruit Attributes:

    • Shape: RoundWeight: 0.55-1.69 kg, Avg. 1.12 kgSize: 10-18 cm long, 11-17 cm wide, Avg. 14 x 14 cmSeeds

  • Season:

    • June-December, few fruits January-February

  • Notes: The pale yellow flesh is firm and moist when cooked. Excellent for chips or French fries.


Breadfruit

  • Distribution: This variety has traveled round the world. Originally collected in Tahiti by Captain Bligh, it was introduced to the Caribbean in 1793 and from there to the Seychelles in the 1800s. Introduced to the University of the West Indies in 1990.

  • Fruit Attributes:

    • Shape: RoundWeight: 0.81-1.75 kg, Avg. 1.34 kgSize: 12-21 cm long, 12-15 cm wide, Avg. 14 x 14 cmNo Seeds

  • Season:

    • July-January, few fruits May-June

  • Notes: The white flesh is solid and dense and has a firm texture when cooked. It has good potential for commercial production of chips.


Breadfruit

  • Distribution: : This unnamed variety from Yap is found on the island of Koror in Palau.

  • Fruit Attributes:

    • Shape: EllipsoidWeight: 1.54-3.94 kg,Avg. 2.6 kgSize: 24-34 cm long, 11-17 cm wide,Avg. 29-14 cmNo Seeds

  • Season:

    • Fruits available year round, peak October-December

  • Notes: This variety has fruits at some stage of development throughout most of the year. The homeowner refers to the fruit as family size because the fruits are so large and provide a meal for a large family. Best baked or roasted.


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