50 years of federal radiation protection guidance what s left to do
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50 Years of Federal Radiation Protection Guidance – What’s Left To Do?. NCHPS Spring Meeting March 4, 2010 Presented by Mike Boyd US EPA Radiation Protection Division. Credit where credit is due –. I owe my career in Health Physics to my mentor, Dr. Jim Watson. 2.

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50 years of federal radiation protection guidance what s left to do

50 Years of Federal Radiation Protection Guidance – What’s Left To Do?

NCHPS Spring Meeting

March 4, 2010

Presented by Mike Boyd

US EPA Radiation Protection Division


Credit where credit is due
Credit where credit is due – What’s Left To Do?

I owe my career in Health Physics to my mentor,

Dr. Jim Watson.

2


What is federal guidance
What is Federal Guidance? What’s Left To Do?

3


What is federal guidance1
What Is Federal Guidance? What’s Left To Do?

The Federal guidance function is to"...advise the President on radiation matters, directly or indirectly affecting the public, including guidance for all Federal agencies in the formulation of radiation standards...”

- Authority transferred from Federal Radiation Council to EPA Administrator in 1970

- President signs final guidance

EPA has used Federal Guidance to

- Set New Limits for Uranium Workers

- Set Revised General Standards for Workers

- Issue Guidance on the Use of Diagnostic X-rays

4


Two kinds of federal guidance
Two Kinds of Federal Guidance What’s Left To Do?

Presidential Guidance

  • Radiation protection principles and policy recommendations to Federal agencies

  • Signed by the President

    Technical Reports

  • Methodologies and coefficients for radiation dose and risk assessments

  • Background information to support Presidential Guidance and standards

5


Two kinds of federal guidance1
Two Kinds of Federal Guidance What’s Left To Do?

Federal Guidance

Technical Guidance

Presidential Guidance

6


History of federal guidance
History of Federal Guidance What’s Left To Do?

Radiation Protection Guidance for Federal Agencies: EISENHOWER 1960 (FRC)

Underground Mining of U Ore: NIXON 1970 (FRC)

Guidance for Occupational Exposure (revised 1960 guidance): REAGAN 1987 (EPA)

Supplemental FG: KENNEDY 1961 (FRC)

Guidance on Diagnostic X-rays: CARTER 1978 (EPA)

Tech. Report 12 External Exposure DCFs 1993 (EPA)

  • Tech. Reports 1, 2, 5, & 7 Background for Rad. Protection Stds. 1960, 61, 65 (FRC)

  • - - - - -

  • Tech Reports 3, 4, 6 Fallout Studies 1962, 63, 64 (FRC)

Tech. Report 8 Guidance for Control of Hazards in U Mines 1967 (FRC)

Tech. Report 9 Background for Diagnostic X-ray Guidance 1976 (EPA)

Tech. Report 10 Radioactive Concentration Guides (out of date) 1984 (FRC)

Tech. Report 11 ALIs, DACs, & DCFs (current, ICRP 26) 1988 (EPA)

Tech. Report 13 Cancer Risk Coefficients 1999 (EPA)

Presidential Guidance

Technical Reports

7


Current fg technical reports
Current FG Technical Reports What’s Left To Do?

8


Science behind the federal guidance
Science Behind the Federal Guidance What’s Left To Do?

Biological Effects of Ionizing Radiation (BEIR)

  • Reports by US National Academies of Science

  • Seven to date. Reports IV and VI describe risk from alpha-emitting radionuclides, including radon

  • Reports III, V, and VII describe risk from low linear energy transfer (LET) radiation such as photons

    United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation (UNSCEAR)

  • Sources, Effects and Risks of Ionizing Radiation

  • Fifteen reports 1955 – 2006

  • Ongoing work

9


Significant icrp recommendations and physiological model data table publications
Significant ICRP Recommendations and Physiological Model/Data Table Publications

ICRP 2 and 10 (1960’s)

ICRP 26 and 30 (multiple parts) (1976 -1980’s)

ICRP 60 + 66, 68, 72 et al (1990 – 2005)

ICRP 103 (2007) + documents being developed (through 2012 or later)

10


Fgr 11 internal dose coefficients
FGR 11: Internal Dose Coefficients Model/Data Table Publications

FGR 11 dose conversion factors (DCFs) used to calculate effective dose to reference adult from ingestion and inhalation of 800+ radionuclides (Sv/Bq)

Provides ALIs and DACs

FGR 11 dosimetry is out of date (based on ICRP 26 and 30 from 1976); but still needed to comply with some US regulations

More recent ICRP 60+ DCFs can be found on FGR 13 CD Supplement

11


Ideas for revising fgr 11
Ideas for Revising FGR 11 Model/Data Table Publications

Provide effective dose for Reference Worker and Reference Individual (both gender averaged)?

  • Worker is adult only

  • Individual is age-averaged for US population

    Provide age-,gender-, and organ-specific equivalent doses?

    Provide updated ALIs and DACs?


Fgr 12 external dose coefficients
FGR 12: External Dose Coefficients Model/Data Table Publications

FGR 12 DCFs used to calculate effective dose to reference adult from exposure to radionuclide concentrations in soil, air and water

Work is currently underway to update FGR 12 with addition of age- and gender-specific DCFs

New DCFs will reflect latest decay data in ICRP Publication 107 (replaces ICRP 38)

13


Radiation Risk Assessment Model/Data Table Publications


Dcal internal emitters calculations
DCAL Internal Emitters Calculations Model/Data Table Publications

15


Fgr 13 cancer risk coefficients
FGR 13: Cancer Risk Coefficients Model/Data Table Publications

FGR 13 gives risk per becquerel for food ingestion, water ingestion, and inhalation

Gives risk/year of exposure per becquerel/ gram of radionuclides in soil

Revision based on BEIR VII is in the early stages (expected ~ 2012 or later)

Current FGR 13 values in units of picocuries are available in EPA’s Health Effects Assessment Summary Tables (HEAST)

16


Fgr 13 cd supplement
FGR 13 CD Supplement Model/Data Table Publications

CD Supplement includes all the data files used to calculate risk coefficients in FGR 13

A data viewer allows the user to look up age-, gender-, and organ-specific risks per radionuclide

ICRP 60+ dose coefficients are also available on the CD Supplement

17


Fgr 9 rp guidance for diagnostic x rays
FGR 9: RP Guidance for Diagnostic X-rays Model/Data Table Publications

Guidance only applies to use of medical/dental x-rays in federal facilities (HHS, VA, DoD)

1976 guidance based on film radiography (film overexposure provided ALARA incentive)

Digital radiography, CT, and interventional fluoroscopy can give sizable doses creating a concern for increased latent cancer risk

Goal is to choose the appropriate imaging procedure and give the dose necessary for proper diagnosis – and no more!

18


Sources of Radiation Exposure Model/Data Table Publications(NCRP Report #160, 2009)


So what s left to do
So, What’s Left To Do? Model/Data Table Publications

As already mentioned, EPA is or will be updating Federal Guidance Reports 9, 11, 12, and 13

FGR 9 and 12 will be completed in late 2010 or early 2011

FGR 13 is now scheduled for completion in 2013

FGR 11 may be ready in late 2012 or 2013, since organ dose information needed for new risk coefficients in FGR 13


What else is left to do
What Else Is Left To Do? Model/Data Table Publications

Federal Guidance for the General Public

  • Current Guidance signed by Pres. Eisenhower in 1960

  • Sets public dose limit of 500 millirems/year

  • Draft proposal considers 2 options – 100 millirems/y with exceptions (e.g., radon) OR non-numerical approach requiring agencies set individual source limits using optimization principle

  • Most agencies now make reference to ICRP/NCRP 100 mrem/y as all-sources limit


And still more possibilities
And still more possibilities…. Model/Data Table Publications

Revised Occupational Presidential Guidance?

Embryo and fetus dose and risk coefficients?

Dermal absorption dose coefficients?



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