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Water Safety Plans for O&M Improvements. Water Safety Conference Kuching, Malaysia 2- 4 November 2010 Asoka Jayaratne Water Quality Specialist Yarra Valley Water Melbourne, Australia. Outline. Linkage between Water Safety Plan (WSP) and operation & maintenance (O&M)

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Water safety plans for o m improvements

Water Safety Plans for O&M Improvements

Water Safety Conference

Kuching, Malaysia

2- 4 November 2010

Asoka Jayaratne

Water Quality Specialist

Yarra Valley Water

Melbourne, Australia


Outline
Outline

  • Linkage between Water Safety Plan (WSP) and operation & maintenance (O&M)

  • Lessons learned from poor O&M practices

  • WSP as a tool to drive O&M improvements

  • O&M framework for safe water

Yarra Valley Water Ltd


Why do we need water safety plans
Why Do We Need Water Safety Plans?

  • Aim of water supply system

    • Provide safe drinking water

    • Provide safe drinking water 100% of the time

Does zero E coli mean safe drinking water?

Yarra Valley Water Ltd


Linkage between WSP and O&M

WHO Framework

Health-based targets

(National regulatory body)

Public health context

and health outcomes

Water Safety Plans

System Assessment

Management

Plans

Operational Monitoring

System Assessment

Independent Surveillance

(Surveillance agency)


Water resources & sources

Distribution system

Treatment

Consumer system

Linkage between WSP and O&MWater Safety Plan Concepts

  • A documented plan that:

  • Identifies hazards, assesses risks from catchment to consumer

  • Prioritises risks focus on highest risks

  • Mitigates risks through control measures

  • Meaning:

  • Less outputmonitoring (final water)

  • More input monitoring (is the system working?)

17 November 2014

Yarra Valley Water Ltd

5


Linkage between WSP and O&MWHO Manual – WSP Components


The link
The Link

Water Safety Plan

Good

O&M Processes

Well developed O&M Procedures = Effective Water Safety Plan = Safe water 100% of time

Poor O&M Procedures = ineffective Water Safety Plan = Potentially unsafe water

17 November 2014

Yarra Valley Water Ltd

7


Poor o m unsafe water supply lessons from the past
Poor O&M = Unsafe Water Supply Lessons from the past….

17 November 2014

Yarra Valley Water Ltd

8


Gideon missouri 1993
Gideon, Missouri, 1993

  • Hazard (contaminant):

    • Salmonella

  • Hazardous event (cause):

    • Pigeons nesting on a water tank roof

    • Tank roof was not sealed and pigeon faeces washed into the tank

    • There was a concentration of Salmonella bacteria in the water tank sediment and at the surface

    • The water tank rapidly drained into the distribution system during a flushing event and chlorine residual was not maintained

    • Effect

      • ~ 500 ill from town of 1,104

      • 7 Dead

17 November 2014

Yarra Valley Water Ltd

9


Milwaukee wisconsin 1993
Milwaukee, Wisconsin, 1993

Hazard (contaminant):

Cryptosporidium oocysts

Hazardous event (cause):

Runoff from heavy spring rains

Carrying sewage into Lake Michigan (from which raw water was drawn)

Coagulation problems on the filtration system in Milwaukee’s Southern water treatment plant

Turbidity did not rise above 1.7 NTU

Effect:

400,000 ill from 1.2 million in city

100 dead

US$96.2 million

  • www.ionizers.org/images/cryptosporidium.jpg acd 2 March 2006

MacKenzie et al, 1984; Corso et al, 2003

17 November 2014

Yarra Valley Water Ltd

10


Oulu finland 1998
Oulu, Finland, 1998

  • Hazard (contaminant):

    • Campylobacter

  • Hazardous event (cause):

    • Water and sewer burst at the same time and place

    • The water main was repaired and flushed out but traces of sewage remained in the water main

    • Traces of Campylobacter remained in the water main after it was reinstated

    • The supply was not a chlorinated one

    • Effect

      • ~ 50 medically attended cases from town of around 15,000

17 November 2014

Yarra Valley Water Ltd

11


Walkerton ontario 2000
Walkerton, Ontario, 2000

Hazard (contaminant):

E. coli O157:H7

Campylobacter jejuni

Hazardous event (cause):

Heaving Spring rains

Cow manure washed into the well

No on line monitoring

Failure to chlorinate

Water supplied by local water utility

Operators, managers & government cutbacks found responsible

Effect

2,300 ill

7 Dead

$ C$155 million

www.cdc.gov/ncidod/eid/vol5no1/altek2b.jpg

www.ehagroup.com/epidemiology/illnesses/images/e-coli-0157-h7-C.jpg acd 2 March 2006

17 November 2014

Yarra Valley Water Ltd

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O’Connor, 2002


Distribution system re-contamination

32% of waterborne disease outbreaks in US are caused by microbial pathogens in the water distribution system

Source: AWWA and Centres for Disease Control and Prevention


The List goes on!!400 + outbreaks in affluent countries

17 November 2014

Yarra Valley Water Ltd

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Water safety plans for o m improvements1
Water Safety Plans for O&M Improvements

Yarra Valley Water Ltd


Driver for o m improvements
Driver for O&M Improvements

WSP Drives Improvements

Structure to identify gaps in routine/emergency maintenance

Identify gaps in operational procedures based on level of risks

Infrastructure upgrades leading to improved operations

Benefits

Longer term cost savings due to reduced incidents and events

Improved operational efficiency

17 November 2014

Yarra Valley Water Ltd

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Wsp for o m improvements australian examples yarra valley water
WSP for O&M ImprovementsAustralian Examples – Yarra Valley Water

Gaps in tank inspection and maintenance program

Improved spot chlorination method

Improved storage area security procedures

17 November 2014

19

Yarra Valley Water Ltd


Wsp for o m improvements australian examples yvw
WSP for O&M ImprovementsAustralian Examples - YVW

Equipment calibration programs

Treatment chemical (hypochlorite) QA procedures

storage and shelf life

impurities

batch control

Water quality focus on water mains construction and replacement process – new industry Code

Incident and emergency management protocols

17 November 2014

Yarra Valley Water Ltd

20


Wsp for o m improvements examples from india
WSP for O&M ImprovementsExamples from India

Pilot WSP - Hyderabad Metropolitan Water Supply and Drainage Board

Identified O&M issues based on level of risk  funding requirements

Leakage from sewers

Infiltration from storm water drains

Illegal sewer connection

17 November 2014

Yarra Valley Water Ltd

23


Wsp for o m improvements examples from india1
WSP for O&M ImprovementsExamples from India

Pilot WSP - Hyderabad Metropolitan Water Supply and Drainage Board

Treatment plant operational issues

Non uniform dispersion of chlorine

Inconsistent alum dosing

Sand filter backwash not based on head loss

Non representative lab sample program

Inadequate chlorine residual monitoring

17 November 2014

Yarra Valley Water Ltd

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O m plan key components
O&M Plan - Key Components

Standard Operating Procedures (SOP) for operation of water supply system from the catchment to consumer including Operational Manuals

Procedures for programmed and unscheduled (emergency) maintenance activities

Emergency and Incident Management Protocols and Manuals

Equipment calibration and maintenance programs

Asset information data capture and management systems

17 November 2014

Yarra Valley Water Ltd

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O m plan key components1
O&M Plan - Key Components

Key Performance Indicators (KPI)

Monitoring, reporting & review of KPI (government regulated/self regulated)

Long term asset management strategy and funding arrangements

Staff and contractor training programs

Quality Control / Quality Assurance systems, internal and third party Auditing (of WSP, O&M process and KPIs)

17 November 2014

Yarra Valley Water Ltd

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O m plan examples storage
O&M Plan Examples - Storage

Reservoir water quality monitoring program off take levels

Normal operation

Events (floods, after fires, algal blooms)

Reservoir inspection program - security

Algae management plan

Contingency plan for

high rainfall events

17 November 2014

Yarra Valley Water Ltd

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O m plan examples treatment
O&M Plan Examples - Treatment

Maintenance program – filters, equipment…..

Water treatment plant operational procedures

Operations and Emergency Response Manuals

Contingency plans for treatment plant failures

Treatment chemical quality control procedures

17 November 2014

Yarra Valley Water Ltd

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O m plan examples distribution
O&M Plan Examples - Distribution

Storage tank operational procedures – taste and odour, chlorine….

Storage tank structural inspection and cleaning program

Valve and hydrant inspection programs

Water main break repair procedures (flushing, disinfection, shut down)

Mains replacement program (prioritised based on risks)

Backflow/cross connection prevention program

Asset information system - data collection, analysis and reporting

17 November 2014

Yarra Valley Water Ltd

29


Time to develop a good o m plan to deliver safe water
Time to develop a Good O&M Planto deliver safe water

Yarra Valley Water Ltd


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