Directors’ Gender Role Identity
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Directors’ Gender Role Identity and Performance : Gender and governance of a Korean consumer co-0perative, iCOOP. 7 th ICA ASIA-PACIFIC CO-OPERATIVE RESEARCH CONFERENCE Kobe, Japan 26 th November 2012. Ah- young Kim Woosuk Choi Seungkwon Jang. ( Sungkonghoe University, Korea) .

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Directors’ Gender Role Identity and Performance : Gender and governance of a Korean consumer co-0perative, iCOOP

7th ICA ASIA-PACIFIC CO-OPERATIVE RESEARCH CONFERENCE

Kobe, Japan

26thNovember 2012

Ah- young Kim

WoosukChoi

Seungkwon Jang

(Sungkonghoe University, Korea)


Contents

Introduction

Theoretical Background

Method

Result

Discussion


Introduction

3 / 14

Growth Rate of Co-operatives in Korea

  • NACF : National Agricultural Cooperative Federation

  • NFFC : National Federation of Fisheries Co-operatives


Introduction

4 / 14

Major Challenges

  • How can the co-operative enterprises be

    kept sustainable?

  • How can board members be motivated to take

    part actively in governance processes of

    co-operative?


Introduction

5 / 14

Female-dominated Boards of Consumer Co-operatives in Korea

Source : The Journal of the iCOOP Korea Cooperative Institute vol.8(2012)


Introduction

6 / 14

Korean women’s participation in economical activities

Source : Economically Active Population Survey(2011), Statistics Korea(http://kostat.go.kr)


Introduction

7 / 14

Research Question

  • Does female dominance of the boards have

    characteristics of femininity?

    ☞ Do only women have characteristics of femininity?

    ☞ Do only men have characteristics of masculinity?


Introduction

8 / 14

Research Purposes

  • To identify the structural relationship of gender role identity, their own governance and financial performance among the primary co-operatives’ boards

  • To identify the structural relationship of gender role identity, their own governance and value centered performance among the primary co-operatives’ boards


Theoretical Background

9 / 14

Gender role identity

  • Gender role identity (Weiten, 1997):

    expectations about what is appropriate behavior for each sex

  • Masculinity : characteristics considered appropriate to a man

  • Femininity : characteristics considered appropriate

    to a woman

    - Androgyny : high levels of both masculinity and femininity


Theoretical Background

10 / 14

Gender role identity

  • BSRI (Bem Sex-Role Inventory ): measurement tool developed

    by Bem (1974) to measure gender role identity

    ( masculine / feminine / androgynous /undifferentiated)

    → KSRI (Korean Sex-role Inventory): by Chung (1990)

  • Androgyny : Individuals increase flexibility and adaptability

    (Bem, 1974; Chung, 1990)


Theoretical Background

11 / 14

Co-operative Governance

  • Co-operative Governance : the rules, the tools

    and the concrete procedures through which co-operative

    societies are managed (Shaw, 2006)

Co-operative

Governance


Theoretical Background

12 / 14

Co-operative Governance

  • The fundamental principles of governance:

    democracy, representation, transparency

  • Spear, Cornforth and Aiken (2009):

    “Co-operatives often find it difficult to maintain membership

    involvement and commitment, particularly as organizations grow

    and become more professionally led. As a result, there is a danger

    that organizations can become dominated by their professional

    staffs and lose their members.”


Theoretical Background

13 / 14

Co-operatives’ Performance

  • Co-operative Performance (Davis, 2012)


Theoretical Background

14 / 14

Research Model


Theoretical Background

15 / 14

Hypotheses

  • Hypothesis 1

Explicit Governance

Explicit Governance

Gender Role Identity

Gender Role Identity

Financial Performance

Value centered

Performance

Implicit Governance

Implicit Governance

  • Hypothesis 2


Theoretical Background

16 / 14

Hypothesis 1

Explicit Governance

Gender Role Identity

Of Board

Financial Performance

Implicit Governance


Theoretical Background

17 / 14

Hypothesis 2

Explicit Governance

Gender Role Identity

Of Board

Value centered

Performance

Implicit Governance


Method

18 / 14

Samples

  • 44 primary co-operatives in iCOOP

  • 328 directors (323 women and 5 men)

  • Survey questionnaire

  • Analysis: using SPSS 12.0 & Smart PLS 2.0.


Method

19 / 14

Variables


Method

20 / 14

Variables

----------------------

* The House Meeting is grassroots units for member participation in new iCOOP product development, food safety tests and campaigns.


Result

21 / 14

Result of Hypothesis 1

The structural relationship among gender role identity of boards,

co-operative governance and financial performance


Theoretical Background

22 / 14

Hypothesis 1.

Explicit Governance

Gender Role Identity of boards

Financial Performance

H1-1 (-)

Implicit Governance

H1-3 (+)

H1-5 (-)


Result

23 / 14

Result of Hypothesis 2

The structural relationship among gender role identity of boards, co-operative governance and value centered performance


Theoretical Background

24 / 14

Hypothesis 2

Explicit Governance

Gender Role Identity of Boards

Value centered

Performance

Implicit Governance

H2-3 (+)

H2-5 (+)


Conclusion

25 / 14

1) The gender role identity of boards affected

their governance and performance significantly.

☞ Androgyny made their activities energetically and

increased member’s participation.

2) The growth of female-dominated consumer co-operative

can promote the woman’s participation in economic and

social activities.

3) The research can promote further studies of co-operatives

because the present research might be the first empirical

research to analyze gender-conscious boards .


Thank you


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