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SWPBS: Beyond Classroom Management. Carl Cole & George Sugai OSEP Center on PBIS University of Connecticut January 18, 2008 www.cber.org www.pbis.org [email protected] PURPOSE: Review features & strategies of SWPBS. What is SWPBS (PBIS)? What’s needed to sustain SWPBS?

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SWPBS:Beyond Classroom Management

Carl Cole & George Sugai

OSEP Center on PBIS

University of Connecticut

January 18, 2008

www.cber.org www.pbis.org

[email protected]


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PURPOSE: Review features & strategies of SWPBS

  • What is SWPBS (PBIS)?

  • What’s needed to sustain SWPBS?

  • What have we learned?

  • What can your team do?


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Problem Statement

“We give schools strategies & systems for developing positive, effective, achieving, & caring school & classroom environments, but implementation is not accurate, consistent, or durable. Schools need more than training.”


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SWPBS Logic

Successful individual student behavior support is linked to host environments that are redesigned & supported to be effective, efficient, durable, & relevant for all students

(Zins & Ponte, 1990)


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Worry“Teaching” by Getting Tough

Runyon: “I hate this f____ing school, & you’re a dumbf_____.”

Teacher: “That is disrespectful language. I’m sending you to the office so you’ll learn never to say those words again….starting now!”


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Immediate & seductive solution….”Get Tough!”

  • Clamp down & increase monitoring

  • Re-re-re-review rules

  • Extend continuum & consistency of consequences

  • Establish “bottom line”

    ...Predictable individual response


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Reactive responses are predictable….

When we experience aversive situation, we select interventions that produce immediate relief

  • Remove student

  • Remove ourselves

  • Modify physical environment

  • Assign responsibility for change to student &/or others


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When behavior doesn’t improve, we “Get Tougher!”

  • Zero tolerance policies

  • Increased surveillance

  • Increased suspension & expulsion

  • In-service training by expert

  • Alternative programming

    …..Predictable systems response!


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Erroneous assumption that student…

  • Is inherently “bad”

  • Will learn more appropriate behavior through increased use of “aversives”

  • Will be better tomorrow…….


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But….false sense of safety/security!

  • Fosters environments of control

  • Triggers & reinforces antisocial behavior

  • Shifts accountability away from school

  • Devalues child-adult relationship

  • Weakens relationship between academic & social behavior programming


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Science of behavior has taught us that students….

  • Are NOT born with “bad behaviors”

  • Do NOT learn when presented contingent aversive consequences

    ……..Do learn better ways of behaving by being taught directly & receiving positive feedback



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2001 Surgeon General’s Report on Youth Violence: Recommendations

  • Change social context to break up antisocial networks

  • Improve parent effectiveness

  • Increase academic success

  • Create positive school climates

  • Teach & encourage individual social skills & competence


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School-based Prevention & Youth Development Programming RecommendationsCoordinated Social Emotional & Academic Learning Greenberg et al. (2003) American Psychologist

  • Teach children social skills directly in real context

  • “Foster respectful, supportive relations among students, school staff, & parents”

  • Support & reinforce positive academic & social behavior through comprehensive systems

  • Invest in multiyear, multicomponent programs

  • Combine classroom & school- & community-wide efforts

  • Precorrect & continue prevention efforts


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Characteristics of Safe School RecommendationsCenter for Study & Prevention of Youth Violence

  • High academic expectations & performance

  • High levels of parental & community involvement

  • Effective leadership by administrators & teachers

  • A few clearly understood & uniformly enforced, rules

  • Social skills instruction, character education & good citizenship.

  • After school – extended day programs


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Lessons Learned: White House Conference on School Safety Recommendations

  • Students, staff, & community must have means of communicating that is immediate, safe, & reliable

  • Positive, respectful, predictable, & trusting student-teacher-family relationships are important

  • High rates of academic & social success are important

  • Positive, respectful, predictable, & trusting school environment/climate is important for all students

  • Metal detectors, surveillance cameras, & security guards are insufficient deterrents


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It’s not just about behavior! Recommendations

STUDENT ACHIEVEMENT

Good Teaching

Behavior Management

Increasing District & State Competency and Capacity

Investing in Outcomes, Data, Practices, and Systems


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Basics: 4 PBS Elements Recommendations

Supporting Social Competence &

Academic Achievement

OUTCOMES

Supporting

Decision

Making

Supporting

Staff Behavior

DATA

SYSTEMS

PRACTICES

Supporting

Student Behavior


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Tertiary Prevention: Recommendations

Specialized

Individualized

Systems for Students with High-Risk Behavior

CONTINUUM OF

SCHOOL-WIDE

INSTRUCTIONAL &

POSITIVE BEHAVIOR

SUPPORT

~5%

Secondary Prevention:

Specialized Group

Systems for Students with At-Risk Behavior

~15%

Primary Prevention:

School-/Classroom-

Wide Systems for

All Students,

Staff, & Settings

~80% of Students


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SWPBS Recommendations

Subsystems

School-wide

Classroom

Family

Non-classroom

Student


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School-wide Recommendations

1. Common purpose & approach to discipline

2. Clear set of positive expectations & behaviors

3. Procedures for teaching expected behavior

4. Continuum of procedures for encouraging expected behavior

5. Continuum of procedures for discouraging inappropriate behavior

6. Procedures for on-going monitoring & evaluation


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Non-classroom Recommendations

  • Positive expectations & routines taught & encouraged

  • Active supervision by all staff

    • Scan, move, interact

  • Precorrections & reminders

  • Positive reinforcement


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Classroom Recommendations

  • Classroom-wide positive expectations taught & encouraged

  • Teaching classroom routines & cuestaught & encouraged

  • Ratio of 6-8 positive to 1 negative adult-student interaction

  • Active supervision

  • Redirections for minor, infrequent behavior errors

  • Frequent precorrections for chronic errors

  • Effective academic instruction & curriculum


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  • Behavioral competence at school & district levels

  • Function-based behavior support planning

  • Team- & data-based decision making

  • Comprehensive person-centered planning & wraparound processes

  • Targeted social skills & self-management instruction

  • Individualized instructional & curricular accommodations


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Family Recommendations

  • Continuum of positive behavior support for all families

  • Frequent, regular positive contacts, communications, & acknowledgements

  • Formal & active participation & involvement as equal partner

  • Access to system of integrated school & community resources


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Sample Teaming Matrix Recommendations


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CONTINUUM of SWPBS Recommendations

  • Tertiary Prevention

  • Function-based support

Audit

Identify existing efforts by tier

Specify outcome for each effort

Evaluate implementation accuracy & outcome effectiveness

Eliminate/integrate based on outcomes

Establish decision rules (RtI)

~5%

~15%

  • Secondary Prevention

  • Check in/out

  • Primary Prevention

  • Teach SW Expectations

~80% of Students


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GENERAL IMPLEMENTATION PROCESS: Recommendations“Getting Started”

Team

Agreements

Data-based

Action Plan

Evaluation

Implementation


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Team-led Process Recommendations

Behavioral

Capacity

Priority &

Status

Representation

Team

Data-based

Decision

Making

Administrator

Communications


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3-4 Year Recommendations

Commitment

Top 3 School-

Wide

Initiatives

3-Tiered

Prevention

Logic

Agreements &

Supports

Coaching &

Facilitation

Administrative

Participation

Dedicated

Resources

& Time


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Self-Assessment Recommendations

Efficient

Systems of Data

Management

Existing

Discipline

Data

Data-based

Action Plan

Team-based

Decision

Making

Multiple

Systems

Evidence-

Based

Practices


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Team Managed Recommendations

Staff

Acknowledgements

Effective

Practices

Implementation

Continuous

Monitoring

Administrator

Participation

Staff Training

& Support


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Relevant & Recommendations

Measurable

Indicators

Efficient

Input, Storage, &

Retrieval

Team-based

Decision Making &

Planning

Evaluation

Continuous

Monitoring

Effective

Visual Displays

Regular

Review



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TEACHING Recommendations

MATRIX

Expectations


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RAH – at Adams City High School Recommendations(Respect – Achievement – Honor)


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RAH – Athletics Recommendations


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E’ Ola Pono Recommendations- to live the proper way

King Kaumualii on Kauai


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Kuleana: RecommendationsBe Responsible

Plan ahead

Walk directly to destination

Ho’ihi: BeRespectful

Walk quietly when classes are in session

Laulima: Be Cooperative

Keep movement flowing

Share equipment and play space

Malama: Be Safe

Walk at all times

Walkways

King Kaumualii on Kauai


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Playground / Recess / P.E. Recommendations

Kuleana: Be Responsible

Take care of equipment/facilities

Plan appropriate times for drinks/restroom visits

Ho’ihi: BeRespectful

Be a good sport

Laulima: Be Cooperative

Follow rules/ procedures

Malama: Be Safe

Avoid rough, dangerous play

Use equipment properly

King Kaumualii on Kauai


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Kuleana: RecommendationsBe Responsible

Have lunch card ready

Be orderly in all lines

Ho’ihi: BeRespectful

Use proper table manners

Eat your own food

Laulima: Be Cooperative

Wait patiently/ quietly

Malama: Be Safe

Walk at all times

Wash hands

Chew food well; don’t rush

Cafeteria

King Kaumualii on Kauai


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Field Trips Recommendations

Kuleana: Be Responsible

Turn in paperwork/$ on time

Wear appropriate footwear/clothing

Bring home lunch

Ho’ihi: BeRespectful

Care for the field trip site

Listen to speakers

Laulima: Be Cooperative

Stay with your chaperone/group

Malama: Be Safe

Use the buddy system

Follow school/bus rules

King Kaumualii on Kauai


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Character Education Recommendations

  • Easy to change moral knowledge..... ...difficult to change moral conduct

  • To change moral conduct...

    • Adults must model moral behavior

    • Students must experience academic success

    • Students must be taught social skills for success


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Acknowledge & Recognize Recommendations


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Acknowledging SW Expectations: Rationale Recommendations

  • To learn, humans require regular & frequent feedback on their actions

  • Humans experience frequent feedback from others, self, & environment

    • Planned/unplanned

    • Desirable/undesirable

  • W/o formal feedback to encourage desired behavior, other forms of feedback shape undesired behaviors


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“Good morning, class!” Recommendations

Teachers report that when students are greeted by an adult in morning, it takes less time to complete morning routines & get first lesson started.


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Reinforcement Wisdom! Recommendations

  • “Knowing” or saying “know” does NOT mean “will do”

  • Students “do more” when “doing works”…appropriate & inappropriate!

  • Natural consequences are varied, unpredictable, undependable,…not always preventive


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Basics Guidelines Recommendations

  • Know basics & be conceptually grounded

  • Work as team

  • Use data to be strategic

  • Self-assess for relevant/priority outcomes

  • Formalize communications & acknowledgements

  • Model

  • Invest in local capacity

  • Engage in smallest effort to maintain effect

  • Integrate rather than add on


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