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DOG. What are the names of the two oceans that touch the U.S.?. Chapter 18 The Western Frontier. Section 1- The Mining Booms. Pike’s Peak or Bust. Gold found here in 1885. Lodes. Rich streaks of ORE sandwiched between layers of rocks. Ore. Rocks that contain minerals

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DOG

  • What are the names of the two oceans that touch the U.S.?


Chapter 18The Western Frontier

Section 1- The Mining Booms


Pike’s Peak or Bust

  • Gold found here in 1885


Lodes

  • Rich streaks of ORE sandwiched between layers of rocks


Ore

  • Rocks that contain minerals

  • What was the Comstock Lode?

    The streak of silver found in Nevada


Comstock Lode

  • Found on the Carson River in Nevada


Henry Comstock

  • Owned a share of the claim

  • Sold it for 11,000 and 2 mules


Boomtowns

  • Towns that grew overnight around mining towns


Virginia City, Nevada

  • Site of the Comstock Boomtown


Vigilantes

  • Citizens acting as a judge, jury, and executioner


Ghost Towns

  • Deserted Boomtowns


The Railroad

  • Grew between 1865 and 1890

  • The Government paid them to build tracks


Subsides

  • Financial aid from the government


Transcontinental Rail Line

  • A train that could connect each coast

  • What are the names of the two coasts in the U.S.?

  • Atlantic, and Pacific


Railroad Companies

Union Pacific

Central pacific


What are the 4 time zones called?

  • Eastern

  • Central

  • Mountain

  • Pacific


Chapter 18

  • Section 2


Mexico and Texas

  • Settled by the Spanish


Longhorns

  • Cattle found in Texas

  • Tough enough to survive the desert and heat


Open Range

  • Not fenced or divided into property lots


Where were the cow towns located and Why?

  • Near railroads so that the cows should be shipped east to bigger cities


Vaqueros

  • Hispanic ranch hands (cowboys)


Homestead Act

  • Gave 160 acres of land to any settler who paid the filing fee


Homestead

  • Owning a piece of land because you settled it


Exodusters

  • The migration of freed slaves to the west


Sodbusters

  • Farmers on the plains

  • What is Sod?


Dry Farming

  • Planting seeds deep in the ground where there is some moisture


Boomers and Sooners

  • Boomers went to Oklahoma to claim free land

  • Sooners got there first


Chapter 18

  • Section 3 – Begin Reading Chapter 18, Section III


American Story

Gall

Crazy Horse


Nomadic

  • People who follow their food


Plains Indian Tribes

Omaha

Osage Chief Black dog


Other Plains Indian Tribes

Sioux

Comanche


The Sioux Nation


Sioux Governing Council

  • Worked like a city council


Threats to the Buffalo

  • The Indians used everything

  • The Settlers shot them for fun


Reservations

  • Pieces of land set aside for the Indians


The Dakota Territory

  • The lands set aside for the Sioux Indians to live on


Bureau of Indian Affairs

  • Was set up to manage all the Indian tribes


Red Cloud

  • Was the leader of the Sioux warriors


The Minnesota Territory

  • Where Red Cloud and his warriors destroyed settler’s homes in 1862


The Lakota People

  • Were the original owners of the land where Mount Rushmore is today


The Bozeman Trail

  • A route used by gold miners to get through Montana


Crazy Horse

  • Joined Sitting Bull and the Cheyenne Warriors to attack Custer


Red Cloud and Crazy Horse

  • Leaders of the Sioux attacks on white settlers


Fort Lyon

  • Where several Sioux warriors surrendered to the Army


Chief Black Kettle

  • Leader of the Cheyenne who were attacked when they came in peace


John Chivington

  • Led the attack on Black Kettle and the Cheyenne


The Black Hills

  • Located in North Dakota

  • Gold was found here and men came onto Sioux land to get it


Sitting Bull

  • Leader of the Sioux

  • Refused to sell any land to U.S.


Battle of Little Big Horn

  • When Sitting Bull , the Sioux leader, and Crazy Horse , the Cheyenne leader, attacked and killed General Custer and his men


Lt. Colonel George Custer

  • Led his men to a massacre by the Cheyenne at Little Big Horn


Geronimo

  • The last of the Indians to surrender


Chief Joseph of the Nez Perce

  • “I Will Fight No More…..”


Dawes Act

  • Forced the Native Americans off of their land and made them become farmers


Wounded Knee

  • The last battle between the Armed forces of the U.S. and the Native Americans


Chapter 18

  • Section 4


National Grange

  • The first farmers association


Cooperatives

  • Stores where farmers bought products for each other


Populist Party

  • The party of the people


Free Silver

  • The unlimited production of silver coins


Grover Cleveland

  • Won the Presidential election of 1892


William McKinley

  • Defeated William Jennings Bryan in the election of 1896


The End


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