Digital image processing
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DIGITAL IMAGE PROCESSING . Instructors: Dr J. Shanbehzadeh [email protected] Kharazmi University. DIGITAL IMAGE PROCESSING. Chapter 9 – Morphological Image Processing. Instructors: Dr J. Shanbehzadeh [email protected] 9.6 - Gray-Scale Morphology. introduction.

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Digital image processing

DIGITAL IMAGE PROCESSING

Instructors:

Dr J. Shanbehzadeh

[email protected]

Kharazmi University


Digital image processing

DIGITAL IMAGE PROCESSING

Chapter 9 – Morphological Image Processing

Instructors:

Dr J. Shanbehzadeh

[email protected]


Digital image processing

  • 9.6 - Gray-Scale Morphology


Introduction

introduction

  • 9.6- introduction

  • 9.6.1 Erosion and Dilation

  • 9.6.2 Opening and Closing

  • 9.6.3 Some Basic Gray-Scale Morphological Algorithms

  • 9.6.4 Gray-Scale Morphological Reconstruction

  • Structuring elements in gray-scale morphology:

  • Non flat

  • Flat

( J.Shanbehzadeh)


Gray scale morphology

  • Erosion and Dilation

Some Basic Gray-Scale Morphological Algorithms

Gray-Scale Morphology

  • Opening and Closing

  • Gray-Scale Morphological Reconstruction

  • Erosionand Dilation

  • 9.6- introduction

  • 9.6.1 Erosion and Dilation

  • 9.6.2 Opening and Closing

  • 9.6.3 Some Basic Gray-Scale Morphological Algorithms

  • 9.6.4 Gray-Scale Morphological Reconstruction

( J.Shanbehzadeh)


Erosion and dilation flat ses

Erosion and Dilation (Flat Ses)

  • Erosion: The minimum value of the image in the region coincident with SE.

  • This is similar to the correlation procedure.

  • Dilation:The maximum value of the image in the window outlined by SE. This is analogous to spatial convolution.

  • Notice: the structuring element is reflected about its origin by using (-s, -t) in the argument of the function

  • 9.6- introduction

  • 9.6.1 Erosion and Dilation

  • 9.6.2 Opening and Closing

  • 9.6.3 Some Basic Gray-Scale Morphological Algorithms

  • 9.6.4 Gray-Scale Morphological Reconstruction

( J.Shanbehzadeh)


Erosion and dilation flat ses1

Erosion and Dilation (Flat Ses)

  • 9.6- introduction

  • 9.6.1 Erosion and Dilation

  • 9.6.2 Opening and Closing

  • 9.6.3 Some Basic Gray-Scale Morphological Algorithms

  • 9.6.4 Gray-Scale Morphological Reconstruction

( J.Shanbehzadeh)


Erosion and dilation flat ses2

Erosion and Dilation (Flat Ses)

Erosion

  • 9.6- introduction

  • 9.6.1 Erosion and Dilation

  • 9.6.2 Opening and Closing

  • 9.6.3 Some Basic Gray-Scale Morphological Algorithms

  • 9.6.4 Gray-Scale Morphological Reconstruction

Dilation

( J.Shanbehzadeh)


Erosion and dilation non flat ses

Erosion and Dilation (Non flat Ses)

Erosion:

  • 9.6- introduction

  • 9.6.1 Erosion and Dilation

  • 9.6.2 Opening and Closing

  • 9.6.3 Some Basic Gray-Scale Morphological Algorithms

  • 9.6.4 Gray-Scale Morphological Reconstruction

Dilation :

Notice: As in the binary case, erosion and dilation are duals with respect to function complementation and reflection

( J.Shanbehzadeh)


Gray scale morphology1

  • Erosion and Dilation

Some Basic Gray-Scale Morphological Algorithms

Gray-Scale Morphology

  • Opening and Closing

  • Gray-Scale Morphological Reconstruction

  • Opening and Closing

  • 9.6- introduction

  • 9.6.1 Erosion and Dilation

  • 9.6.2 Opening and Closing

  • 9.6.3 Some Basic Gray-Scale Morphological Algorithms

  • 9.6.4 Gray-Scale Morphological Reconstruction

( J.Shanbehzadeh)


Opening and closing

Opening and Closing

  • 9.6- introduction

  • 9.6.1 Erosion and Dilation

  • 9.6.2 Opening and Closing

  • 9.6.3 Some Basic Gray-Scale Morphological Algorithms

  • 9.6.4 Gray-Scale Morphological Reconstruction

  • Opening:

  • ClosingSeries:

  • Notice: The opening and closing for gray-scale images are duals with respect to complementation and SE reflection

( J.Shanbehzadeh)


Digital image processing

Opening and Closing

  • 9.6- introduction

  • 9.6.1 Erosion and Dilation

  • 9.6.2 Opening and Closing

  • 9.6.3 Some Basic Gray-Scale Morphological Algorithms

  • 9.6.4 Gray-Scale Morphological Reconstruction

( J.Shanbehzadeh)


Digital image processing

Opening and Closing

  • 9.6- introduction

  • 9.6.1 Erosion and Dilation

  • 9.6.2 Opening and Closing

  • 9.6.3 Some Basic Gray-Scale Morphological Algorithms

  • 9.6.4 Gray-Scale Morphological Reconstruction

( J.Shanbehzadeh)


Digital image processing

Opening and Closing

  • 9.6- introduction

  • 9.6.1 Erosion and Dilation

  • 9.6.2 Opening and Closing

  • 9.6.3 Some Basic Gray-Scale Morphological Algorithms

  • 9.6.4 Gray-Scale Morphological Reconstruction

( J.Shanbehzadeh)

Opening

Erosion


Digital image processing

Opening and Closing

  • 9.6- introduction

  • 9.6.1 Erosion and Dilation

  • 9.6.2 Opening and Closing

  • 9.6.3 Some Basic Gray-Scale Morphological Algorithms

  • 9.6.4 Gray-Scale Morphological Reconstruction

( J.Shanbehzadeh)

Closing

Dilation


Gray scale morphology2

Some Basic Gray-Scale Morphological Algorithms

  • Erosion and Dilation

Gray-Scale Morphology

  • Opening and Closing

  • Gray-Scale Morphological Reconstruction

Some Basic Gray-Scale Morphological Algorithms

  • 9.6- introduction

  • 9.6.1 Erosion and Dilation

  • 9.6.2 Opening and Closing

  • 9.6.3 Some Basic Gray-Scale Morphological Algorithms

  • 9.6.4 Gray-Scale Morphological Reconstruction

( J.Shanbehzadeh)


Morphological smoothing

Morphological Smoothing

  • 9.6- introduction

  • 9.6.1 Erosion and Dilation

  • 9.6.2 Opening and Closing

  • 9.6.3 Some Basic Gray-Scale Morphological Algorithms

  • 9.6.4 Gray-Scale Morphological Reconstruction

  • Opening:suppresses bright details smaller than the specified SE and closing suppresses dark details.

  • They are used often in combination as morphological filters for image smoothing and noise removal

( J.Shanbehzadeh)


Morphological smoothing1

Morphological Smoothing

  • 9.6- introduction

  • 9.6.1 Erosion and Dilation

  • 9.6.2 Opening and Closing

  • 9.6.3 Some Basic Gray-Scale Morphological Algorithms

  • 9.6.4 Gray-Scale Morphological Reconstruction

( J.Shanbehzadeh)


Morphological gradient

Morphological Gradient

  • Dilation and erosion can be used in combination with imagesubtraction to obtain the morphologicalgradient of an image:

  • The dilation thickens regions in an image and the erosion shrinks them. Their difference emphasizes theboundaries between regions.

  • 9.6- introduction

  • 9.6.1 Erosion and Dilation

  • 9.6.2 Opening and Closing

  • 9.6.3 Some Basic Gray-Scale Morphological Algorithms

  • 9.6.4 Gray-Scale Morphological Reconstruction

( J.Shanbehzadeh)


Morphological gradient1

Morphological Gradient

  • 9.6- introduction

  • 9.6.1 Erosion and Dilation

  • 9.6.2 Opening and Closing

  • 9.6.3 Some Basic Gray-Scale Morphological Algorithms

  • 9.6.4 Gray-Scale Morphological Reconstruction

( J.Shanbehzadeh)


Top hat and bottom hat transformation

Top–hat and Bottom–hat Transformation

Combining image subtraction with openings and closings results in top-hat and bottom-hat transformations.

Top-hattransformation:

Bottom-hat transformation:

Notice: The top-hat transform is used for light objects on a dark background, and the bottom-hat transform is used for the converse.

  • 9.6- introduction

  • 9.6.1 Erosion and Dilation

  • 9.6.2 Opening and Closing

  • 9.6.3 Some Basic Gray-Scale Morphological Algorithms

  • 9.6.4 Gray-Scale Morphological Reconstruction

( J.Shanbehzadeh)


Top hat and bottom hat transformation1

Top–hat and Bottom–hat Transformation

  • 9.6- introduction

  • 9.6.1 Erosion and Dilation

  • 9.6.2 Opening and Closing

  • 9.6.3 Some Basic Gray-Scale Morphological Algorithms

  • 9.6.4 Gray-Scale Morphological Reconstruction

( J.Shanbehzadeh)


Granulometry

Granulometry

  • 9.6- introduction

  • 9.6.1 Erosion and Dilation

  • 9.6.2 Opening and Closing

  • 9.6.3 Some Basic Gray-Scale Morphological Algorithms

  • 9.6.4 Gray-Scale Morphological Reconstruction

Determining the size distribution of particles in an image.

Granulometry consists of applying openings with SEs of increasing size. For each opening, the sum of the pixel values in the opening is computed. To emphasize changes between successive openings, we compute the difference between adjacent elements of the 1-D array. The peaks in the plot are an indication of the size distributions of the particles in the image.

( J.Shanbehzadeh)


Digital image processing

Granulometry

  • 9.6- introduction

  • 9.6.1 Erosion and Dilation

  • 9.6.2 Opening and Closing

  • 9.6.3 Some Basic Gray-Scale Morphological Algorithms

  • 9.6.4 Gray-Scale Morphological Reconstruction

( J.Shanbehzadeh)


Granulometry1

Granulometry

  • 9.6- introduction

  • 9.6.1 Erosion and Dilation

  • 9.6.2 Opening and Closing

  • 9.6.3 Some Basic Gray-Scale Morphological Algorithms

  • 9.6.4 Gray-Scale Morphological Reconstruction

( J.Shanbehzadeh)


Textural segmentation

Textural Segmentation

  • 9.6- introduction

  • 9.6.1 Erosion and Dilation

  • 9.6.2 Opening and Closing

  • 9.6.3 Some Basic Gray-Scale Morphological Algorithms

  • 9.6.4 Gray-Scale Morphological Reconstruction

Finding a boundary between two regions based on their textural content.

( J.Shanbehzadeh)


Gray scale morphology3

Some Basic Gray-Scale Morphological Algorithms

  • Erosion and Dilation

Gray-Scale Morphology

  • Opening and Closing

  • Gray-Scale Morphological Reconstruction

  • Gray-Scale Morphological Reconstruction

  • 9.6- introduction

  • 9.6.1 Erosion and Dilation

  • 9.6.2 Opening and Closing

  • 9.6.3 Some Basic Gray-Scale Morphological Algorithms

  • 9.6.4 Gray-Scale Morphological Reconstruction

( J.Shanbehzadeh)


Gray scale morph reconstruction

Gray-Scale Morph. Reconstruction

  • 9.6- introduction

  • 9.6.1 Erosion and Dilation

  • 9.6.2 Opening and Closing

  • 9.6.3 Some Basic Gray-Scale Morphological Algorithms

  • 9.6.4 Gray-Scale Morphological Reconstruction

Let f and g denote the marker and mask images.

Geodesic dilation of size 1:

^ denotes the point-wise minimum operator.

  • Geodesic dilation of size n:

    Geodesic erosion of size 1:

    Geodesic erosion of size n:

( J.Shanbehzadeh)


Gray scale morph reconstruction1

Gray-Scale Morph. Reconstruction

Morphological reconstruction by dilation:

Morphological reconstruction by erosion:

  • 9.6- introduction

  • 9.6.1 Erosion and Dilation

  • 9.6.2 Opening and Closing

  • 9.6.3 Some Basic Gray-Scale Morphological Algorithms

  • 9.6.4 Gray-Scale Morphological Reconstruction

( J.Shanbehzadeh)


Gray scale morph reconstruction2

Gray-Scale Morph. Reconstruction

Opening by reconstruction of size n:

  • Closing by reconstruction of size n:

  • 9.6- introduction

  • 9.6.1 Erosion and Dilation

  • 9.6.2 Opening and Closing

  • 9.6.3 Some Basic Gray-Scale Morphological Algorithms

  • 9.6.4 Gray-Scale Morphological Reconstruction

( J.Shanbehzadeh)


Gray scale morph reconstruction3

Gray-Scale Morph. Reconstruction

  • 9.6- introduction

  • 9.6.1 Erosion and Dilation

  • 9.6.2 Opening and Closing

  • 9.6.3 Some Basic Gray-Scale Morphological Algorithms

  • 9.6.4 Gray-Scale Morphological Reconstruction

( J.Shanbehzadeh)


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