Chapter 7 linkage crossing over and chromosome mapping in eukaryotes
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Chapter 7 Linkage, Crossing Over, and Chromosome Mapping in Eukaryotes. José A. Cardé, PhD Universidad Adventista de las Antillas Agosto 2013. Chapter Outline. Linkage, Recombination, and Crossing Over Chromosome Mapping. A Chromosome Map.

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Chapter 7 linkage crossing over and chromosome mapping in eukaryotes
Chapter 7Linkage, Crossing Over, and Chromosome Mapping in Eukaryotes

José A. Cardé, PhD

Universidad Adventista de las Antillas

Agosto 2013


Chapter outline
Chapter Outline

  • Linkage, Recombination, and Crossing Over

  • Chromosome Mapping


A chromosome map
A Chromosome Map

  • Mapa genético- arreglo linear de un cromosoma con genes

  • Sturtevant - baso en el principio de que los genes q estan en un mismo cromosoma se deben heredar juntos

  • Estan fisicamente juntos PLT deben viajar juntos en meiosis


Linkage recombination and crossing over

Genes that are on the same chromosome travel through meiosis together; however, alleles of chromosomally linked genes can be recombined by crossing over.

Linkage, Recombination, and Crossing Over


Linkage and recombination
Linkage and Recombination together; however, alleles of chromosomally linked genes can be recombined by crossing over.

  • Linkage

  • Recombination

  • Crossing over

  • Chiasma (chiasmata)


Linked Genes Do Not together; however, alleles of chromosomally linked genes can be recombined by crossing over.Assort Independently

-P – color de flores y longitud del polen

F1 – rojas y largo – dominancia

F2 – 24.3:1.1:1:7.1 X2>500

fenotipo parental: sobrerepresentado

otros fenotipos: subrepresentado

PLT : no hay sorteo independiente

X2 = 7.8 vs 533.6


Linked Genes Do Not together; however, alleles of chromosomally linked genes can be recombined by crossing over.Assort Independently

  • A que se debe la ausencia de sorteo independiente?

  • ambos genes estan en el mismo cromosoma = ligados

  • si los genes estan ligados se espera que los F1 solo tengan 2 gametos y no 4

  • aparentemente cada cierto tiempo ocurre algo que produce combinaciones de donde salen dos gametos nuevos


Testcross for linkage together; however, alleles of chromosomally linked genes can be recombined by crossing over.assestment

  • Cruce de Prueba

  • este análisis demuestra el genotipo de los gametos de los F1 doble heterocigotos

  • la progenie recombinante en F2 es solo 8% (muy bajo) del total, PLT los gene estan fuertemente ligados


Linkage phases coupling and repulsion
Linkage Phases: together; however, alleles of chromosomally linked genes can be recombined by crossing over.Coupling and Repulsion


Hasta ahora
Hasta together; however, alleles of chromosomally linked genes can be recombined by crossing over.ahora:

  • La frecuencia de recombinación por las plantas heterocigotas de F1 se calcula dividiendo 80/1000 = 0.08

  • genes mientras mas cercanos en el cromosoma están, menos probable q se separen PLT mas ligados están

  • Genes mas lejanos en el cromosoma, mas probable q se separen, menos intenso es el ligamiento


Hasta ahora1
Hasta together; however, alleles of chromosomally linked genes can be recombined by crossing over.ahora:

  • Para cualquiera 2 genes, la frecuencia de recombinación NUNCA excederá el 50%

  • este es el limite superior máximo y se obtiene cuando los genes están totalmente separados o sea en cromosomas diferentes!!

  • 50% de hecho es el % de recombinación que vemos cuando decimos que los gene se sortean independiente


Crossing over
Crossing Over together; however, alleles of chromosomally linked genes can be recombined by crossing over.


Multiple crossovers
Multiple Crossovers together; however, alleles of chromosomally linked genes can be recombined by crossing over.


Key points
Key Points together; however, alleles of chromosomally linked genes can be recombined by crossing over.

  • Linkage between genes is detected as a deviation from expectations based on Mendel’s Principle of Independent Assortment.

  • The frequency of recombination measures the intensity of linkage.

  • In the absence of linkage, this frequency is 50 percent; for very tight linkage, it is close to zero.


Key points1
Key Points together; however, alleles of chromosomally linked genes can be recombined by crossing over.

  • Recombination is caused by a physical exchange between paired homologous chromosomes early in prophase of the first meiotic division after chromosomes have duplicated.

  • At any one point along a chromosome, the process of exchange (crossing over) involves only two of the four chromatids in a meiotic tetrad.

  • Late in prophase I, crossovers become visible as chiasmata.


Linked genes can be mapped on a chromosome by studying how often their alleles recombine

Linked genes can be mapped on a chromosome by studying together; however, alleles of chromosomally linked genes can be recombined by crossing over.how often their alleles recombine.

Chromosome Mapping


Observable outcomes of crossing over
Observable Outcomes of Crossing Over together; however, alleles of chromosomally linked genes can be recombined by crossing over.

  • Formation of chiasmata in late prophase.

  • Recombination between genes on opposites sides of the crossover point.


Genetic map distances
Genetic Map Distances together; however, alleles of chromosomally linked genes can be recombined by crossing over.

  • The distance between two points on the genetic map of a chromosome is: the average number of crossovers between them.


Cálculos de CO together; however, alleles of chromosomally linked genes can be recombined by crossing over.

  • La distancia entre dos puntos en un mapa genético de un cromosoma : el número promedio de CO entre ellos

  • 100 ovogonios

  • en algunos no hay CO = 70

  • en otros hay 1 = 20

  • en otros hay 2 = 8

  • en otros hay 3 = 2

  • al final calcular el número promedio de CO entre genes en los cromosomas analizados = 0.42


Recombination mapping with a two point testcross
Recombination Mapping with a Two-Point Testcross together; however, alleles of chromosomally linked genes can be recombined by crossing over.

  • vg+/b+ x vg/b

  • F1 vg+/b+

  • vg+/b+ x vg/b (Test Cross)

  • 4 clases, 2 abundantes y 2 recombinantes

  • 180/ 1000 = 0.18

  • recombinantes <<50%

  • (0)x0.82 + (1)x0.18 = 0.18


Recombination mapping
Recombination Mapping together; however, alleles of chromosomally linked genes can be recombined by crossing over.

  • The Recombination Frequency between vg and b is 18%

  • This is equal to 18 map units, or 18 centiMorgans (cM) on the genetic map.


Recombination mapping with a three point testcross
Recombination Mapping with a Three-Point Testcross together; however, alleles of chromosomally linked genes can be recombined by crossing over.

  • sc+/ec+/cv+ x sc/ec/cv

  • F1 – sc+/ec+/cv+

  • TestCross

  • 8 clases fenotipicas, 2 parentales y 6 recombinantes

  • cada clase recombinante representa algun tipo de CO

  • 1ro determinar el orden

  • 2do determinar que CO produce que recombinante


Determining the gene order
Determining the Gene Order together; however, alleles of chromosomally linked genes can be recombined by crossing over.

  • There are 3 possible gene orders

    • sc - ec - cv

    • ec - sc - cv

    • ec - cv - sc

  • The two most common classes are the parentals.

  • Among the recombinant classes, the 2 rare classes represent the double crossovers.

  • The gene that is “switched” in the double crossover classes compared to the parental is the middle gene (in this case, ec).


Calculation of map distances
Calculation of Map Distances together; however, alleles of chromosomally linked genes can be recombined by crossing over.

0(1158+1455)/ 3248 +

1(163+130 + 192 + 148)/3248 +

2 (1+1+1+1)/3248 =0.196 x 100 = 19.6


Interference and the coefficient of coincidence
Interference and the Coefficient of Coincidence together; however, alleles of chromosomally linked genes can be recombined by crossing over.

  • Assuming independence, the expected frequency of double crossovers is 0.091  0.105 = 0.0095.

  • The observed frequency of double crossovers was 2/3248 = 0.0006.

  • A crossover in one region inhibited a crossover nearby.


Coeficiente de coincidencia
Coeficiente together; however, alleles of chromosomally linked genes can be recombined by crossing over. de Coincidencia

  • The coefficient of coincidence (c) is the ratio of observed double crossovers to expected double crossovers.

    c = 0.0006 / 0.0095 = 0.063

  • Interference – un CO inhibe la ocurrencia de otro.

  • (I) = 1 - c

    I = 1 - 0.063 = 0.937


Recombination frequency and genetic map distance
Recombination Frequency and Genetic Map Distance together; however, alleles of chromosomally linked genes can be recombined by crossing over.

La distancia en dos genes puede ser mas que lo que la frecuencia de recombinantes sugiera, PQ?

PQ Esta se basa en el PROMEDIO de los CO

Cuando es que la frecuencia de recombinacion no refleja la distancia real en un mapa cromosomico?

Cuando estan demasiado lejos!

Ej genes sc y f – separados por 66.8 cM (empírico basado en intermediarios)

Segun el extpo y los resultados hay un 50% de recombinacion… o sea es como si estuvieran en cromosomas separados!!!

Pero 50 cM no es igual a 66.8 cM que se saca estudiando las regiones entre ellos


DCO y recombinantes together; however, alleles of chromosomally linked genes can be recombined by crossing over.

Resultados de DCO entre dos puntos

DCO entre 2 hebras = No Recom

DCO entre 3 hebras = 50%/50%

DCO entre 4 hebras =

100% de Recomb


Recombination frequency and genetic map distance1
Recombination Frequency and Genetic Map Distance together; however, alleles of chromosomally linked genes can be recombined by crossing over.


Key points2
Key Points together; however, alleles of chromosomally linked genes can be recombined by crossing over.

  • The genetic maps of chromosomes are based on the average number of crossovers that occur during meiosis.

  • Genetic map distances are estimated by calculating the frequency of recombination between genes in experimental crosses.


Key points3
Key Points together; however, alleles of chromosomally linked genes can be recombined by crossing over.

  • Recombination frequencies less than 20 percent estimate map distance directly; however, recombination frequencies greater than 20 percent underestimate map distance because multiple crossover events do not always produce recombinant chromosomes.

  • An average of one chiasma during meiosis is equivalent to 50 centiMorgans of genetic map distance.


Key points4
Key Points together; however, alleles of chromosomally linked genes can be recombined by crossing over.

  • Recombination can bring favorable mutations together.

  • Chromosome rearrangements, especially inversions, can suppress recombination.

  • Recombination is under genetic control.


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