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PSY 369: Psycholinguistics. Psycholinguistics Review for Exam 1 (1 week from today) Chapters 1, 2, 3, 5 Lectures weeks 1, 2, 3, 4. Week 1. What is language? Compared to communication Do animals use language What is psycholinguistics?. Week 1 & Chapter 1 terms and concepts.

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psy 369 psycholinguistics

PSY 369: Psycholinguistics

Psycholinguistics

Review for Exam 1 (1 week from today)

Chapters 1, 2, 3, 5

Lectures weeks 1, 2, 3, 4

week 1
Week 1
  • What is language?
    • Compared to communication
    • Do animals use language
  • What is psycholinguistics?

Week 1 & Chapter 1 terms and concepts

Cognitive science

Linguistics

Semantics

Syntax

Phonology

Pragmatics

Wilhelm Wundt

Behaviorism

B. F. Skinner

Roger Brown

Noam Chomsky

Associative chain theory

Rationalism

Empiricism

Tacit knowledge

Explicit knowledge

Communication

Charles Hockett’s features of language

Animals and Language

Language features

week 2
Week 2
  • Crash course in linguistics
    • Different levels of analyses
      • The parts and the rules

Week 2 & Chapter 2 terms and concepts

Word order

Phonology

Duality of patterning

Phones & phonemes

Minimal pairs

Distinctive features

Categorical perception

Morphology

Free and bound morphemes

Derivational & inflectional rules

Wug test

Syntax & Grammar

Linguistic productivity

Phrase structure rules

Noam Chomsky

Recursive rules

Arbitrariness

Observational adequacy

Descriptive adequacy

Explanatory adequacy

Syntactic ambiguity

Deep structure

Surface structure

Transformational rules

Psychological reality of grammar

Derivational theory of complexity

Centrality of syntax

Semantics

Sense and Reference

Pragmatics

Lexical semantics

Compositional semantics

allomorphs

week 3
Week 3
  • Crash course in cognitive psychology
    • Mental structures and processes

Week 3 & Chapter 3 terms and concepts

Atkinsin & Shiffrin model

Sensory stores

Short term memory

Working memory

Long term memory

Declarative memory

Procedural memory

Attention

Top down processing

Bottom up processing

Automatic processing

Controlled processing

Semantic memory

Episodic memory

Serial processing

Parallel processing

Modularity

Cognitive psychology

The mind as a computer analogy

George Sperling

George Miller

Chunking

Limited resources theory

Feature integration theory

Working memory capacity

Ebbinghaus

Bahrick

Dual task procedure

Visual Search exps

week 4
Week 4
  • Representing Language
    • What and how are properties of language mentally represented?

Week 4 & Chapter 5 terms and concepts

Internal (mental) lexicon

Lexical access

Tip-of-the-tongue

Syntactic category

Inflectional morphemes

Derivation morphemes

Sense and reference

Synonym

Hyponymy & hypernymy

Semantic network

Hierarchical network

Collins and Quillian model

Collins and Loftus model

Spreading activation models

Intersection search

Semantic verification

Cognitive economy

Typicality effect

Forster search model

Morton Logogen model

Marslen-Wilson cohort model

Recognition point

Lexical decision task

Word frequency

Semantic priming

Lexical ambiguity

Lexical primatives

Lexical organization

Speech errors

Prior context effects

psycholinguistics a brief history

1900

10

20

50

60

70

80

90

2000

Psycholinguistics : A brief history
  • Multidisciplinary origins
    • philosophy (e.g., theories of meaning)
    • physiology (e.g., brain trauma effects on language)
    • linguistics (e.g., historical vs. descriptive, Noam Chomsky)
    • psychology (e.g., behaviorist vs. cognitive approaches)
    • computer science (e.g., artificial intelligence)
what is communication
What is communication?
  • Any means by which two (or more) individuals exchange information
    • Paralinguistic techniques – non-verbal communication
      • Hand signals, facial expressions, body language, nods, smiles, winks, etc.
      • Also includes things like tone of voice, tempo, volume, etc.
    • Non-linguistic communication - that do involve vocalization
      • Grunts, groans, snorts, sighs, whimpers, etc.
    • Not all produced sounds are intended to convey messages, so they aren’t communication
      • e.g., snoring
features of language hockett 1960
Features of Language (Hockett, 1960)

“labrador”

“dog”

  • Arbitrariness
  • Displacement
  • Productivity
  • Discreteness
  • Semanticity
  • Duality of patterning

“perro”

“hund”

Last week my dog escaped the backyard and dug in the neighbor’s garden.

“dog”

“dog”

“dog”

  • Four legged animal
  • Common pet
  • Fur
  • Chases cats
  • Barks
  • Etc.

Meaning

Words and morphemes

“dog”

No meaning

Phonomes

/d/

/o/

/g/

Hockett (1960) is available for download in the ‘optional readings’ on Blackboard

animals and language

Birdsong

Bee dance

Human Language

Parrot

Dog

?

?

?

?

?

Animals and language?

Arbitrariness

Displacement

Productivity

Discreteness

Semanticity

Duality of patterning

what is language
What is language?
  • Some generally agreed upon conclusions
    • Symbolic
      • Elements are used to represent something other than itself
    • Voluntary
      • Language use is under our individual control
    • Language is systematic
      • There is hierarchical structure that organizes linguistic elements
    • Modalities
      • Spoken, written, signed (sign language)
      • Assumed primacy of speech - it came first
week 211
Week 2
  • Crash course in linguistics
    • Different levels of analyses
      • The parts and the rules

Week 2 & Chapter 2 terms and concepts

Word order

Phonology

Duality of patterning

Phones & phonemes

Minimal pairs

Distinctive features

Categorical perception

Morphology

Free and bound morphemes

Derivational & inflectional rules

Wug test

Syntax & Grammar

Linguistic productivity

Phrase structure rules

Noam Chomsky

Recursive rules

Arbitrariness

Observational adequacy

Descriptive adequacy

Explanatory adequacy

Syntactic ambiguity

Deep structure

Surface structure

Transformational rules

Psychological reality of grammar

Derivational theory of complexity

Centrality of syntax

Semantics

Sense and Reference

Pragmatics

Lexical semantics

Compositional semantics

allomorphs

levels of analysis
Levels of analysis
  • Phonology
  • Morphology
  • Syntax
  • Semantics
  • Pragmatics

language

pragmatics

use

structure

medium of

transmission

grammar

meaning

(semantics)

phonetics

phonology

morphology

lexicon

discourse

syntax

phonology
Phonology
  • The sounds of a language
    • Phonemes, allophones & phones
      • Phonemes - abstract (mental) representations of the sound units in a language
        • Minimal pairs: pie, buy, tie, die, sigh, lie, my, guy, why, shy
        • Articulatory features
      • Allophones - different sounds that get categorized as the same phoneme
      • Phones - a general term for the sounds used in languages
    • Rules about how to put the sounds together

‘Spill’ vs. ‘Pill’ Rule: If /p/ is used in word initial position you add aspiration (a puff of air), if word internal don’t aspirate

morphology
Morphology
  • Morpheme – smallest unit that conveys meaning
  • Productivity
    • Free morphemes: can stand alone as words
    • Bound morphemes: can not stand alone as words
    • Inflectional rules
      • used to express grammatical contrasts in sentences
    • Derivational rules
      • Construction of new words, or change grammatical class
  • Allomorphs: different variations of the same morpheme (e.g., plural morpheme in English)
  • Language differences
    • Isolating, Inflecting, Agglutinating languages
psychological reality of morphology

Here is a wug.

Now there are two of them.

There are two _______.

Psychological reality of Morphology
  • Wug test (Gleason, 1958)
  • Speech errors
    • Stranding errors: The free morpheme typically moves, but the bound morpheme stays in the same location (“they are Turking talkish”)
    • Morpheme substitutions: (“Where\'s the fire distinguisher?”)
    • Morpheme shift: (“I haven\'t satten down and writ__ it”)
slide16

Syntax: the ordering of the words

  • The underlying structural position, rather than surface linear position matters.
slide17

Syntax: the ordering of the words

  • Not just the linear ordering
  • It is the underlying set of syntactic rules
generative grammar wiki
Generative Grammar (wiki)
  • The pieces:
  • Grammatical features of words
  • Phrase structure rules - these tell us how to build legal structures
    • S --> NP VP
  • Recursion: you can embed structures within structures
      • NP --> (A) (ADJ) N (PP)
      • PP --> Prep NP

The result is an infinite number of syntactic structures from a finite set of pieces

chomsky s linguistics
Chomsky’s Linguistics
  • Chomsky proposed that grammars could be evaluated at three levels:
    • Observational adequacy
    • Descriptive adequacy
    • Explanatory adequacy
  • Transformational grammar
    • Two stages phrase structures for a sentence
      • Build DeepStructure
      • Convert to SurfaceStructure
psychological reality of syntax
Psychological reality of syntax
  • Derivational theory of complexity
    • The more transformations, the more complex
      • The boy was bitten by the wolf
      • The boy was bitten. (involves deletion)
      • No evidence for more processing of the second sentence
    • Evidence for (trace)
      • Some recent evidence or reactivation of moved constituent at the trace position
  • Evidence for syntax
    • Syntactic priming
syntactic priming
Syntactic priming
  • Bock (1986), Task: If you hear a sentence, repeat it, if you see a picture describe it

a: The ghost sold the werewolf a flower

b: The ghost sold a flower to the werewolf

a: The girl gave the teacher the flowers

b: The girl gave the flowers to the teacher

semantics

“What’s in a name? that which we call a rose

By any other name would smell as sweet.”

Semantics
  • The study of meaning
    • Arbitrariness
  • Words are not the same as meaning
    • Words are symbols linked to mental representations of meaning (concepts)
    • Even if we changed the name of a rose, we wouldn’t change the concept of what a rose is
separation of word and meaning
Separation of word and meaning
  • Concepts and words are different things
    • Translation argument
      • Every language has words without meaning, and meanings without words
        • e.g., transmogrify, wheedle, scalawag
    • Imperfect mapping
      • Multiple meanings of words
        • e.g., ball, bank, bear
    • Elasticity of meaning
      • Meanings of words can change with context
        • e.g., newspaper
semantics24

In the 90’s

Semantics
  • Philosophy of meaning
    • Sense and reference
      • “The world’s most famous athlete.”
      • “The athlete making the most endorsement income.”
      • 2 distinct senses, 1 reference

Now

  • Over time the senses typically stay the same, while the references may change
semantics25
Semantics
  • Two levels of analysis (and two traditions of psycholinguistic research)
    • Word level (lexical semantics)
      • How do we store words?
      • How are they organized?
      • What is meaning?
      • How do words relate to meaning?
    • Sentence level (compositional semantics)
      • How do we construct higher order meaning?
      • How do word meanings and syntax interact?
lexical semantics
Lexical Semantics
  • Word level
    • The (mental) lexicon: the words we know
      • The average person knows ~60,000 words
    • How are these words represented and organized?
      • Dictionary definitions?
      • Necessary and sufficient features?
      • Lists of features?
      • Networks?
lexical ambiguity

“Oh no, Lois has been

hypnotized and is jumping

off the bank!”

Money “bank”

River “bank”

Lexical Ambiguity
  • What happens when we use ambiguous words in our utterances?
lexical ambiguity28

Hmm… ‘bank’ usually means

the financial institution, but

Lois was going fishing with

Jimmy today …

Lexical Ambiguity
  • Psycholinguistic evidence suggests that multiple meanings are considered
    • Debate: how do we decide which meaning is correct
      • Based on: frequency, context
compositional semantics
Compositional Semantics
  • Phrase and sentence level
    • Some of the theories
      • Truth conditional semantics: meaning is a logical relationship between an utterance and a state of affairs in the world
      • Jackendoff’s semantics
        • Concepts are lists of features, images, and procedural knowledge
        • Conceptual formation rules
      • Cognitive grammar
        • Mental models - mental simulations of the world
pragmatics
Pragmatics
  • Sentences do more than just state facts, instead they are uttered to perform actions
      • How to do things with words (J. L. Austin, 1955 lectures)
    • Using registers
    • Conversational implicatures
    • Speech acts
pragmatics31
Pragmatics
  • Registers: How we modify conversation when addressing different listeners
    • Determine our choice of wording or interpretation based on different contexts and situations
      • Speech directed at babies, at friends, at bosses, at foreigners
pragmatics32
Pragmatics
  • Conversational implicatures
    • Speakers are cooperative
      • Grice’s conversational maxims
        • Quantity: say only as much as is needed
        • Quality: say only what you know is true
        • Relation: say only relevant things
        • Manner: Avoid ambiguity, be as clear as possible
pragmatics33
Pragmatics
  • Speech acts: How language is used to accomplish various ends
    • Direct speech acts
      • Open the window please.
      • Clean up your room!
    • Indirect speech acts
      • “It is hot in here”
      • “Your room is a complete mess!”
    • Non-literal language use
      • e.g., Metaphors and idioms
pyscholinguistics and pragmatics
Pyscholinguistics and pragmatics
  • Three-stage theory
    • Stage 1: compute the literal interpretation of the utterance
    • Stage 2: evaluate the interpretation against assumptions
      • Grice’s conversational maxims
    • Stage 3: if interpretation doesn’t seem correct, derive (or retrieve) non-literal interpretation
pyscholinguistics and pragmatics35
Pyscholinguistics and pragmatics
  • One stage approaches
    • Evaluate utterance at multiple levels simultaneously and select the appropriate one
    • Use context to derive the single most-likely interpretation
week 336
Week 3
  • Crash course in cognitive psychology
    • Mental structures and processes

Week 3 & Chapter 3 terms and concepts

Atkinsin & Shiffrin model

Sensory stores

Short term memory

Working memory

Long term memory

Declarative memory

Procedural memory

Attention

Top down processing

Bottom up processing

Automatic processing

Controlled processing

Semantic memory

Episodic memory

Serial processing

Parallel processing

Modularity

Cognitive psychology

The mind as a computer analogy

George Sperling

George Miller

Chunking

Limited resources theory

Feature integration theory

Working memory capacity

Ebbinghaus

Bahrick

Dual task procedure

Visual Search exps

mind as computer analogy
Mind as computer analogy
  • Limitations of the analogy

Computers

  • fast
  • serial (mostly)
  • digital
  • few connections (relatively)

Minds (Brains??)

  • slow
  • parallel
  • analog
  • trillions of connections
  • Other analogies out there:
    • Mind as a brain (Connectionism)
    • Mind as a body (Embodied Cognition)
the standard model
The ‘standard model’

The Multistore Model

Information ‘flows’ from one memory buffer to the next

the sensory store
The sensory store
  • George Sperling’s full and partial report experiments
  • Properties
    • sensory specific - one for vision, one for audition, etc.
    • high capacity
    • extremely fast decay
short term memory
Short Term Memory
  • Serial position recall experiments (e.g., Peterson & Peterson), STM span experiments, chunking
  • Properties
    • rapid access (about 35 milliseconds per item)
    • limited capacity (7+/- 2 chunks; George Miller, 1956)
    • fast decay, about 12 seconds (longer if rehearsed or elaborated)
working memory
Working Memory
  • Allocate attentional resources to the

subcomponents

  • Directs elaboration/manipulation of

information

  • Working memory instead of STM
  • Store and manipulate visual and spatial

information

    • Directly from perception
    • Indirectly from imagery
  • Phonological rehearsal mechanism
  • Phonological store
  • Very limited capacity
    • Rehearsal maintains information

in the store

long term memory
Long term memory
  • Properties
    • Capacity: Unlimited?
    • Duration: Decay/interference, retrieval difficulty
    • Organization
      • Multiple subsystems for type of memory
      • Associative networks (more on these next week)
long term memory capacity
Long term memory: Capacity
  • How much can we remember?
    • Lots, no known limits to how much memory storage we have.
    • More important issue concerns questions about encoding and retrieval
      • Encoding - getting memories into LTM what gets in?
        • Rehearsal
        • Depth of processing – organization, distinctiveness, effort, elaboration
      • Retrieval - getting memories out of LTM what gets out? exact memories or reconstructed memories?
long term memory duration
Long term memory: Duration
  • How long do our memories last?
  • Ebbinghaus (1885/1913)
    • He memorized non-sense syllables.
    • Memorize them until perfect performance,
    • Test to relearn the lists perfectly.
      • This was called the "savings."
  • Bahrick (1984)
    • He has done a number of studies asking people about memories for things (e.g., Spanish, faces of classmates, etc.) that they learned over 50 years past. He has found evidence that at least some memories stick around a really long time.
long term memory organization
Long term memory: Organization

The Multiple Memory

Stores Theory

  • This theory suggests that there are different memory components, each storing different kinds of information.
  • Declarative
    • episodic- memories about events
    • semantic- knowledge of facts
  • Procedural- memories about how to do things (e.g., the thing that makes you improve at riding a bike with practice.

Declarative

  • episodic
  • semantic

Procedural

attention

Limited capacity resource

  • Filtering capabilities
  • Integration function
Attention
  • Major tool of the central executive
attention limited resource
Attention: Limited resource
  • Only have so much ‘energy’ to make things go, so need to divide it and allocate it to processes
    • Single pool (e.g., Kahneman, 1973)
      • Central bank of resources available to all tasks that need it
    • Multiple pools (e.g., Navon & Gopher, 1979)
      • Several banks of specialized resources – divided up in terms of input/output modalities, stages of info processing (perception, memory, response output)
  • Dual task experiments
attention an information filter
Attention: An information filter
  • Information bottleneck. There is so much info, only some is let through, while the rest is filtered out
    • Early selection (e.g., Broadbent, 1958, Triesman, 1964)
    • Late filters (Deutsch & Deutsch)
      • Everything gets in, bottleneck comes at response level (can only respond to limited number of things)
  • Cocktail party effect, dichotic listening
attention integration
Attention: Integration
  • Attention is used to ‘glue’ features together
    • Feature integration theory & Visual search exps

Where’s Waldo

Find the X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

Pop out

X

X

X

X

X

O

O

X

X

O

O

Slow search

X

O

O

X

X

X

O

O

X

attention how do we control it
Attention: How do we control it?
  • Attention as a ‘spotlight’
  • Move it around, make it focused or diffuse
  • Is it ‘aimed’ or ‘pulled’
automaticity
Automaticity
  • Controlled processes
    • Require resources
    • Under some volitional direction
    • Slow, effortful
  • Automatic processes
    • Require little attention
    • Obligatory
    • Fast
bottom up top down

C

T

T

E

Bottom-up & Top-down
  • Terms come from computer science
    • Bottom up (data driven) relies upon evidence that is physically present, building larger units based on smaller ones
    • Top down (knowledge driven), using higher-level information to support lower-level processes

FROG

Doing the laundry story

week 453
Week 4
  • Representing Language
    • What and how are properties of language mentally represented?

Week 4 & Chapter 5 terms and concepts

Internal (mental) lexicon

Lexical access

Tip-of-the-tongue

Syntactic category

Inflectional morphemes

Derivation morphemes

Sense and reference

Synonym

Hyponymy & hypernymy

Semantic network

Hierarchical network

Collins and Quillian model

Collins and Loftus model

Spreading activation models

Intersection search

Semantic verification

Cognitive economy

Typicality effect

Forster search model

Morton Logogen model

Marslen-Wilson cohort model

Recognition point

Lexical decision task

Word frequency

Semantic priming

Lexical ambiguity

Lexical primatives

Lexical organization

Speech errors

Prior context effects

storing linguistic information
Storing linguistic information
  • Tale of the tape:
    • High capacity: 40,000 – 60,000 words
    • Fast: Recognition in as little as 200ms (often before word ends)
      • How do we search that many, that fast!? – suggests that there is a high amount of organization
  • Or something much more complex
  • “The world’s largest data bank of examples in context is dwarfed by the collection we all carry around subconsciously in our heads.”
  • E. Lenneberg (1967)

Excellent reading: Words in the Mind, Aitchison (1987, 2003)

lexical primitives

horse

horses

barn

barns

horse

-s

barn

Lexical primitives
  • Word primitives
  • Need a lot of representations
  • Fast retrieval
  • Morpheme primitives
  • Economical - fewer representations
  • Slow retrieval - some assembly required
    • Decomposition during comprehension
    • Composition during production
lexical primitives56
Lexical primitives
  • Lexical Decision task (e.g., Taft, 1981)
    • See a string of letters
    • As fast as you can determine if it is a real English word or not
      • “yes” if it is
      • “no” if it isn’t
    • Typically speed and accuracy are the dependent measures

table

Yes

vanue

No

daughter

Yes

tasp

No

cofef

No

hunter

Yes

lexical primitives57
Lexical primitives
  • Lexical Decision task
  • This evidence supports the morphemes as primitives view

daughter

Pseudo-suffixed

daught

-er

hunter

Multimorphemic

Takes longer

hunt

-er

lexical primitives58
Lexical primitives
  • May depend on other factors
    • What kind of morpheme
      • Inflectional (e.g., singular/plural, past/present tense)
      • Derivational (e.g., drink --> drinkable, infect --> disinfect)
    • Frequency of usage
      • High frequency multimorphemic (in particular if derivational morphology) may get represented as a single unit
        • e.g., impossible vs. imperceptible
    • Compound words
      • Semantically transparent
        • Buttonhole
      • Semantically opaque
        • butterfly
lexical organization
Lexical organization
  • Factors that affect organization
    • Phonology
    • Frequency
    • Imageability, concreteness, abstractness
    • Grammatical class
    • Semantics
lexical organization60
Lexical organization
  • Phonology
    • Words that sound alike may be stored “close together”
  • Brown and McNeill (1966) Tip of the tongue phenomenon (TOT)

What word means to formally renounce the throne?

abdicate

Look at what words they think of but aren’t right

e.g, “abstract,” “abide,” “truncate”

lexical organization61
Lexical organization
  • Phonology
    • Words that sound alike may be stored “close together”
  • Brown and McNeill (1966) Tip of the tongue phenomenon (TOT)

Similar-sounding words

50

% of matches

Similar-meaning words

40

30

20

10

2

1

2

3

1

3

  • More likely to approximate target words with similar sounding words than similar meanings
  • The “Bathtub Effect” - Sounds at the beginnings and ends of words are remembered best (Aitchison, 2003)

Letters at

Word end

Word beginning

lexical organization62
Lexical organization
  • Frequency
    • Typically the more common a word, the faster (and more accurately) it is named and recognized
      • Typical interpretation: easier to retrieve (or activate)
    • However, Balota and Chumbley (1984)
      • Frequency effects depend on task
        • Lexcial decision - big effect
        • Naming - small effect
        • Category verifcation - no effect
          • A canary is a bird. T/F
lexical organization63
Lexical organization
  • Imageability, concreteness, abstractness

Umbrella

Lantern

Freedom

Apple

Knowledge

Evil

  • More easily remembered
  • More easily accessed
lexical organization64
Lexical organization
  • Grammatical class
    • Grammatical class constraint on substitution errors

“she was my strongest propeller” (proponent)

“the nation’s dictator has been exposed” (deposed)

  • Word association tasks
    • Associate is typically of same grammatical class
lexical organization65
Lexical organization
  • Grammatical class
    • Open class words
      • Content words (nouns, verbs, adjectives, adverbs)
    • Closed class words
      • Function words (determiners, prepositions, …)
lexical organization66
Lexical organization
  • Semantics
    • Free associations (see the “cat” demo in earlier lecture)
      • Most associates are semantically related (rather than phonologically for example)
    • Semantic Priming task
      • For the following letter strings, decide whether it is or is not an English word
lexical organization67

doctor

doctor

Lexical organization
  • Semantic Priming task

Related

nurse

Responded to faster

Unrelated

shoes

“Priming effect”

lexical organization68

Meaning based representations

Grammatical based representations

Sound based representations

Lexical organization
  • Another possibility is that there are multiple levels of representation, with different organizations at each level
semantic networks
Semantic Networks
  • Semantic Networks
    • Words can be represented as an interconnected network of sense relations
      • Each word is a particular node
      • Connections among nodes represent semantic relationships
collins and quillian 1969

has fins

has feathers

can swim

Fish

can fly

Bird

has gills

has wings

Collins and Quillian (1969)

Semantic

Features

  • Representation permits cognitive economy
    • Reduce redundancy of semantic features

has skin

Animal

Lexical entry

can move around

breathes

  • Collins and Quillian Hierarchical Network model
    • Lexical entries stored in a hierarchy
collins and quillian 196971
Collins and Quillian (1969)
  • Testing the model
    • Semantic verification task
      • An A is a B True/False
  • An apple has teeth
  • Use time on verification tasks to map out the structure of the lexicon.
collins and quillian 196972
Collins and Quillian (1969)
  • Testing the model

Sentence Verification time

Robins eat worms 1310 msecs

Robins have feathers 1380 msecs

Robins have skin 1470 msecs

    • Participants do an intersection search

has skin

Animal

can move around

breathes

Robins have skin

has feathers

can fly

Bird

has wings

Robin

eats worms

has a red breast

collins and quillian 196973
Collins and Quillian (1969)
  • Problems with the model
    • Effect may be due to frequency of association
      • “A robin breathes” is less frequent than “A robin eats worms”
    • Assumption that all lexical entries at the same level are equal
      • The Typicality Effect
        • A whale is a fish vs. A horse is a fish
        • Which is a more typical bird? Ostrich or Robin.
collins and quillian 196974

has long legs

Robin

eats worms

Ostrich

is fast

can’t fly

has a red breast

Collins and Quillian (1969)

has skin

Animal

can move around

Robin and Ostrich occupy the same relationship with bird.

breathes

has fins

has feathers

can swim

Fish

can fly

Bird

has gills

has wings

Verification times:

“a robin is a bird” faster than “an ostrich is a bird”

semantic networks75
Semantic Networks
  • Alternative account: store feature information with most “prototypical” instance (Eleanor Rosch, 1975)

Rate on a scale of 1 to 7 if these are good examples of category: Furniture

1) chair

1) sofa

2) couch

3) table

:

:

12) desk

13) bed

:

:

42) TV

54) refrigerator

TV

couch

table

bed

chair

desk

refrigerator

semantic networks76
Semantic Networks
  • Alternative account: store feature information with most “prototypical” instance (Eleanor Rosch, 1975)
    • Prototypes:
      • Some members of a category are better instances of the category than others
        • Fruit: apple vs. pomegranate
      • What makes a prototype?
        • More central semantic features
          • What type of dog is a prototypical dog?
          • What are the features of it?
        • We are faster at retrieving prototypes of a category than other members of the category
spreading activation models
Spreading Activation Models
  • Collins & Loftus (1975)
    • Words represented in lexicon as a network of relationships
  • Organization is a web of interconnected nodes in which connections can represent:
    • categorical relations
    • degree of association
    • typicality

street

vehicle

car

bus

truck

house

orange

Fire

engine

fire

red

blue

apple

pear

tulips

roses

fruit

flowers

spreading activation models78
Spreading Activation Models
  • Collins & Loftus (1975)
  • Retrieval of information
    • Spreading activation
    • Limited amount of activation to spread
    • Verification times depend on closeness of two concepts in a network

street

vehicle

car

bus

truck

house

orange

Fire

engine

fire

red

blue

apple

pear

tulips

roses

fruit

flowers

spreading activation models79
Spreading Activation Models
  • Advantages of Collins and Loftus model
    • Recognizes diversity of information in a semantic network
    • Captures complexity of our semantic representation (at least some of it)
    • Consistent with results from priming studies
spreading activation models80
Spreading Activation Models
  • More recent spreading activation models
    • Probably the dominant class of models currently used
    • Typically have multiple levels of representations
lexical access

Activate

Lexical access

Retrieval

  • Up until this point we’ve focused on structure of lexicon
  • But the evidence is all inferred from usage
    • Speech errors, priming studies, verification, lexical decision
  • While structure is important, so are the processes that may be involved in activating and retrieval the information
    • We’ve seen this already a little with intersection searches and spreading activation
lexical access82

Activate

Lexical access

Retrieval

  • How do we retrieve the linguistic information from Long-term memory?
    • What factors are involved in accessing (activating and/or retrieving?) information from the lexicon?
    • Models of lexical access
recognizing a word84

Select word

Retrieve lexical

information

Input

Cat

noun

Animal, pet,

Meows, furry,

Purrs, etc.

cat

cat

Recognizing a word

Search for a match

dog

cap

wolf

tree

yarn

cat

cat

claw

fur

hat

lexical access85
Lexical access
  • Factors affecting lexical access
    • Frequency
    • Semantic priming
    • Role of prior context
    • Phonological structure
    • Morphological structure
    • Lexical ambiguity
role of prior context
Role of prior context
  • Swinney (1979)
      • Hear: “Rumor had it that, for years, the government building has been plagued with problems. The man was not surprised when he found several spiders, roaches and other bugs in the corner of his room.”
    • Lexical Decision task

Context related: ant

Context inappropriate: spy

Context unrelated sew

    • Results and conclusions
      • Within 400 msecs of hearing "bugs", both ant and spy are primed
      • After 700 msecs, only ant is primed
morphological structure
Morphological structure
  • Snodgrass and Jarvell (1972)
    • Do we strip off the prefixes and suffixes of a word for lexical access?
    • Lexical Decision Task:
      • Response times greater for affixed words than words without affixes
      • Evidence suggests that there is a stage where prefixes are stripped.
models of lexical access
Models of lexical access
  • Serial comparison models
    • Search model (Forster, 1976, 1979, 1987, 1989)
  • Parallel comparison models
    • Logogen model (Morton, 1969)
    • Cohort model (Marslen-Wilson, 1987, 1990)
logogen model morton 1969
Logogen model (Morton 1969)

Auditory stimuli

Visual stimuli

Auditory

analysis

Visual

analysis

Context

system

Semantic

Attributes

Logogen

system

Available Responses

Output

buffer

Responses

logogen model
Logogen model
  • The lexical entry for each word comes with a logogen
  • The lexical entry only becomes available once the logogen ‘fires’
  • When does a logogen fire?
    • When you read/hear the word
slide91

Think of a logogen as being like a ‘strength-o-meter’ at a fairground

When the bell rings, the logogen has ‘fired’

slide92

‘cat’

[kæt]

  • What makes the logogen fire?
    • seeing/hearing the word
  • What happens once the logogen has fired?
    • access to lexical entry!
slide93

‘cat’

[kæt]

‘cot’

[kot]

Low freq takes longer

  • So how does this help us to explain the frequency effect?
  • High frequency words have a lower threshold for firing
  • e.g., cat vs. cot
slide94

‘doctor’

[doktə]

‘nurse’

[nə:s]

Spreading activation network

doctor

nurse

nurse

doctor

  • Spreading activation from doctor lowers the threshold for nurse to fire
  • So nurse take less time to fire
search model

Visual input

Auditory input

Pointers

Access codes

/kat/

cat

Decreasing frequency

Entries in order of

mat

cat

mouse

Mental lexicon

Search model
cohort model
Cohort model
  • Three stages of word recognition

1) Activate a set of possible candidates

2) Narrow the search to one candidate

      • Recognition point (uniqueness point) - point at which a word is unambiguously different from other words and can be recognized

3) Integrate single candidate into semantic and syntactic context

  • Specifically for auditory word recognition
  • Speakers can recognize a word very rapidly
    • Usually within 200-250 msec
cohort model97
Cohort model
  • Prior context: “I took the car for a …”

/s/

/sp/

/spi/

/spin/

soap

spinach

psychologist

spin

spit

sun

spank

spinach

spin

spit

spank

spinach

spin

spit

spin

time

comparing the models
Comparing the models
  • Each model can account for major findings (e.g., frequency, semantic priming, context), but they do so in different ways.
    • Search model is serial and bottom-up
    • Logogen is parallel and interactive (information flows up and down)
    • Cohort is bottom-up but parallel initially, but then interactive at a later stage
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