Body composition
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Body Composition. BODY COMPOSITION IS A Combination of muscle, bone, and fat. Lean body mass — muscle and other non-fat tissue Body fat — stored calories. Body Types ( Somatotypes). Endomorph — large, soft, bulging body Mesomorph — solid, large-boned Ectomorph — slender, slight build.

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Body Composition

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Body composition

Body Composition

BODY COMPOSITION IS A Combination of muscle, bone, and fat.

Lean body mass— muscle and other non-fat tissue

Body fat— stored calories


Body types somatotypes

Body Types (Somatotypes)

Endomorph — large, soft, bulging body

Mesomorph — solid, large-boned

Ectomorph — slender, slight build

Endomorph

Ectomorph

Mesomorph


Endomorph characteristics

Endomorph-Characteristics

  • high percentage of body fat

  • short neck

  • large abdomen

  • wide hips

  • round, full buttocks

  • short, heavy legs


Mesomorph characteristics

Mesomorph Characteristics

  • firm, well-developed

    muscles

  • large bones

  • muscular arms

  • trim waist

  • muscular buttocks

  • powerful legs


Ectomorph characteristics

Ectomorph Characteristics

  • Small bones

  • Thin muscles

  • Slender arms and legs

  • Narrow chest

  • Round shoulders

  • Flat abdomen

  • Small buttocks


Body composition

  • firm, well developed muscles

  • large bones

  • muscular arms

  • trim waist

  • muscular buttocks

  • powerful legs

  • Small bones

  • Thin muscles

  • Slender arms and legs

  • Narrow chest

  • Round shoulders

  • Flat abdomen

  • Small buttocks

  • high percentage of body fat

  • short neck

  • large abdomen

  • wide hips

  • round, full buttocks

  • short, heavy legs


Overweight vs obesity

Overweight vs. Obesity

  • Overweight — exceed desirable body weight by 10% according to height weight charts.

  • Obese — excessive amount of body fat

  • Ideal body weight — amount you would weigh with appropriate level of body fat

    YOU CAN BE OBESE WITHOUT BEING OVERWEIGHT


Weight control is a major health problem in us

WEIGHT CONTROL IS A MAJOR HEALTH PROBLEM IN US

It is estimated that 34 million adults are obese. Excess body fat has been linked to high blood

Pressure,heart disease, diabetes, arthritis, and certain forms of cancer. For these reasons, we

all need to be concerned about our weight.


Body mass index

BODY MASS INDEX

Body Mass Index (BMI) is an estimate of total body fat based on your height and weight.

  • BMI does not account for body composition or fat distribution.

  • BMI is most valuable for evaluating degree’s of obesity.

  • BMI may overestimate body fat in athletes or others with a muscular built or large body frame.

  • BMI in the healthy range does not necessarily mean that you are fit and healthy.

  • BMI is only one factor in determining a person’s health risk.


According to height and weight charts

According to Height and Weight Charts

This person is overweight.

This person is normal.


Formula for calculating bmi

Formula for calculating BMI

Government Medical Guidelines established Underweight=<18.5

Normal Weight= 18.5-24.9

Overweight= 24-29.9

Obesity= BMI of 30 or greater

The BMI is determined by dividing the body weight in kilograms by the height measured to the nearest meter squared.


Calculate your bmi

Calculate Your BMI

Calculate your weight in kilograms by dividing your weight in

pounds by 2.2:

(________) ÷ 2.2= _______weight in kilograms

Weight in lbs

Calculate your height in meters by multiplying your height in inches by 2.54 and divide by 100:

___________ x 2.54 ÷ 100 = _______ height in meters

height in inches

Square your height in meters:

_______ X ______= height squareheight in meters height in meters

BMI = Weight in Kilograms = __________

Height in Meters 2


Health risk of too much body fat

Heart Disease

Diabetes

Stroke

Hypertension (high BP)

Some Cancers

Sleep Apnea (pauses in breathing)

Social discrimination

Kidney disorders

Surgical risk

List resistant to infections

Problem during pregnancy

Shortened life expectancy

HEALTH RISK OF TOO MUCH BODY FAT


Fat is important because

FAT IS IMPORTANT BECAUSE……

  • Bone density

  • Protects vital organs/bones

  • Stores energy

  • Insulation / warmth

  • Production of estrogen (Menstrual cycle)

    Too little body fat is a health risk.


Menstruation

Menstruation

Physically active females, particularly athletes who have a low percentage of body fat:

  • Have increased risk of delayed onset menstruation

  • Have increased risk of irregular menstrual cycle

  • May have complete cessation of menses

    Critical levels: about 17% for onset of menstruation and about 22% to maintain normal cycles.

    Levels change from person to person


Ideal body fat

Ideal % Body Fat

Healthy Fitness Zone

Males 10%-25%

Females 17%-32%

Text Book Standards

Looking Good Feeling Good

FITNESSGRAM


Methods to measure body fat

METHODS TO MEASUREBODY FAT

skin fold

measurements

Analysis by electrical impedance

Measurement of body circumference

Under water weighing


Electrical impedance

ELECTRICAL IMPEDANCE

Muscle, tendons and ligaments act as conductors. Fat acts as an insulator. The current will flow through the path of least resistance. Muscle tissue, which contains about 80% water, acts as a good conductor for the current. Fat carries far less water, thus making the current work harder to get around the fat. Thus creating a higher impedance value.


Creeping obesity

Creeping Obesity

20

  • slowly gain fat over time


Weight maintenance

Weight Maintenance

Input = Output


Permanent weight loss

Permanent Weight Loss

  • Diet

  • Exercise

  • Combination of the diet and exercise is the BEST


Weight loss methods

WEIGHT LOSS METHODS

Weight loss in pounds

Diet Alone


Weight loss methods1

WEIGHT LOSS METHODS

Weight loss in pounds

Diet Alone


Weight loss methods2

WEIGHT LOSS METHODS

Weight loss in pounds

Diet Alone


Caloric cost of physical activity

Caloric Cost of Physical Activity

Calories = (# cal. burned/minute/pound) x (weight x minutes)

Example:

Calories = (.079 cal./min./lb.) x (120 lbs. x 30 min.)

calories= 284


Weight control myths

Weight Control Myths

  • Exercise does not help with weight loss.

  • Spot reduction - exercising certain areas will remove fat in that area.

  • Increasing activity will increase your appetite.

  • Excessive fat is a glandular problem.


Ideal body weight

IDEAL BODY WEIGHT

Triceps Skinfold _____ mm

+ Calf Skinfold _____ mm Percent of Body Fat _____ %

Sum = _____ mm

Determine your fat weight by multiplying your weight times your percent of body fat.

Weight _____

× % Fat × _____

Fat Weight = _____

Determine your lean body weight (LBW) by subtracting your fat weight from your weight.

Weight _____

– Fat Wt. – _____

LBW = _____


Ideal body weight1

IDEAL BODY WEIGHT

Body fat =12%

Lean body weight = 88%


Ideal minimum maximum

IDEAL MINIMUM / MAXIMUM

FEMALES

Ideal Minimum = Lean Body Weight = ________ = ________ lbs.

(17% fat) .83 LBW.83

Ideal Maximum = Lean Body Weight = ________ = ________ lbs.

(32% fat) .68 LBW.68

Males

Ideal Minimum = Lean Body Weight = ________ = ________ lbs.

(10% fat) .90 LBW.90

Ideal Maximum = Lean Body Weight = ________ = ________ lbs.

(25% fat) .75 LBW.75

Determine your ideal body weight by dividing your ideal percent of lean body weight into your lean body weight.

Lean Body Weight = ________ = ________ lbs.

Ideal % LBW

How many pounds are you currently over or under your ideal body weight?


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