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Victim Services and Underserved Populations. Adolescents Sister Maryann Lucy, OP. Goals. Developmental profile of adolescents High risk factors for adolescents Addressing victimization Males Females Early identification of chronic offenders. Developmental Profile. Adolescence:

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Victim services and underserved populations

Victim Services and Underserved Populations

Adolescents

Sister Maryann Lucy, OP


Goals
Goals

  • Developmental profile of adolescents

  • High risk factors for adolescents

  • Addressing victimization

    • Males

    • Females

  • Early identification of chronic offenders


  • Developmental profile
    Developmental Profile

    • Adolescence:

      • A distinct period of growth between childhood and adulthood

      • Ages 10 – 15

  • Physical Development:

    • Accelerated and uneven growth spurts

    • Changes in skeletal/muscular system

    • Fluctuation in basal metabolism

    • Hormonal changes!


  • Developmental profile cont
    Developmental Profile (Cont.)

    • Brain Development:

      • Prefrontal cortex is not fully developed

      • Affects: Planning, reasoning, anticipating consequences, sustaining attention and making decisions

  • Intellectual Development

    • Understanding

    • Reasoning

    • Period of great curiosity


  • Developmental profile cont1
    Developmental Profile (Cont.)

    Teens are in progress from concrete logical operations to:

    • Developing and testing hypotheses

    • Analyzing and synthesizing data

    • Grappling with complex concepts

    • Thinking reflectively


    Moral ethical development
    MORAL/ETHICAL DEVELOPMENT

    A movement from blanket acceptance of adult moral judgment to a development of personal values.

    Teens are at risk for making unsound moral and ethical choices.


    Emotional psychological development
    EMOTIONAL/PSYCHOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENT

    • Quest for independence and identity formation

    • Heightened feelings of vulnerability

    • Emotionally charged situations produce childish reactions

    • Naïve opinions/one-sided arguments

      Social maturity often lags behind physical and intellectual development.


    Tasks in process
    TASKS IN PROCESS

    • Achieving mature relationships with others

    • Achieving masculine/feminine social role

    • Accepting one’s physique

    • Achieving emotional independence from parents/adults

    • Preparing for marriage and family/economic career

    • Acquiring values and ethical system

    • Achieving socially responsive behaviors


    High risk factors
    HIGH RISK FACTORS

    • Physical/sexual abuse

    • Exposure to violence in home/community

    • Socio-economic stressors

    • Gang affiliations

    • Weak social ties

    • Intense anger/low frustration levels

    • Illicit drugs

    • Sexual activity


    High risk factors cont
    High Risk Factors (Cont.)

    When interviewing victimized youth utilize a “global assessment” perspective.

    Remember to take into account developmental stages, past and present stressors, physical health and relational style.


    High risk factors cont1
    High Risk Factors (Cont.)

    IF IN DOUBT, TEST IT OUT!

    • MMPI-A

    • Millon Adolescent Clinical Inventory (MACI:1993)

    • Adolescent Psychopathology Scale (APS) (Reynolds, 1995)

    • Psychopathy Checklist – Revised (Hare, 1991)


    Addressing victimization
    ADDRESSING VICTIMIZATION

    MALES

    “Sexual abuse of boys appears to be common, under reported, under recognized and under treated” (Holmes & Slap, 1998)

    “A boy is abused for every 2 to 4 girls abused. Those who work with RUNAWAYS, MALE CHILD PROSTITUTES OR INPATIENT MALES IN PSYCHIATRIC UNITS, are very likely to encounter abused boys” (Wathins, 1992)


    Addressing victimization cont
    Addressing victimization (Cont.)

    ASSESS EXTERNALIZED BEHAVIORS:

    • Poor school performance

    • Delinquent activities

    • Sexual risk taking

    • More extreme use of alcohol

    • Frequent and extreme use of marijuana


    Addressing victimization cont1
    Addressing Victimization (Cont.)

    50% of abused teens are diagnosed with PTSD. Of this 50% there is a higher rate of diagnosis for boys.

    • High risk behavior includes problems in school, eating and sleeping disturbances, flashbacks and fear of places and people.

      The aftermath of abuse of boys might be worse or more complex than for girls.


    Addressing victimization cont2
    Addressing Victimization (Cont.)

    THEMES OF ABUSED MALES

    • Anger/betrayal

    • Homosexuality/Masculine Issues

    • Hopelessness

    • Isolation/Alienation

    • Legitimacy

    • Loss

    • Self-blame and guilt

    • Shame and humiliation


    Addressing victimization cont3
    Addressing Victimization (Cont.)

    WATCH FOR

    • More problems with aggressive and social interactions

    • Oversensitivity to negative statements by peers

    • Increased sexual acting out behaviors


    Addressing victimization cont4
    Addressing Victimization (Cont.)

    FEMALES

    Females report sexual abuse more often than males, but ARE MORE OFTEN BLAMED FOR THE SEXUAL ADVANCES OF A MALE OFFENDER EVEN WHEN A FEMALE VICTIM IS A YOUNG CHILD.


    Addressing victimization cont5
    Addressing Victimization (Cont.)

    • Seduction

    • “Liking it / Wanting it”

    • Sexual response to the abuse

    • Dress: “Asking for it”

    • Female body is developed: “Acting older than she is”


    Addressing victimization cont6
    Addressing Victimization (Cont.)

    WATCH FOR INTERNALIZED BEHAVIORS

    • Depression / Isolation

    • Suicidal ideation and behavior

    • Eating disturbances

    • Self-mutilation

    • More frequent use of alcohol


    Early identification
    EARLY IDENTIFICATION

    Adult peak criminal activity occurs between 18-26 years of age. (California Youth Authority)

    Precipitated by serious and consistent conduct problems starting at early childhood

    FAMILY ADVERSITY


    Early identification1
    EARLY IDENTIFICATION

    CALLOUS AND UNEMOTIONAL PROFILE

    • Overt indicators: Bullying, fighting, leading to…

    • Covert indicators: Lying / Stealing, property damage, authority conflicts


    Early identification2
    EARLY IDENTIFICATION

    HIGH RISK FACTORS

    • Academic Failure

    • Suspensions and truancy

    • Lack of family stability

    • Mental health and substance abuse problems

    • Pre-delinquent behaviors such as: running away, gang affiliation, acting disruptive and stealing


    Early identification3
    EARLY IDENTIFICATION

    DUAL DIAGNOSIS IN CHILDHOOD

    • HIPERACTIVITY DISORDER

    • CONDUCT DISORDER

      TEST OUT FOR VALIDATION


    Early identification4
    EARLY IDENTIFICATION

    • What can we do together to prevent the potential for adolescent offenders becoming chronic offenders?

    • Family adversity is prime factor in predicting offending behavior in adolescence. What do we do about this?

    • Approximately 85% of offending teens stop offending as they mature into adulthood. How we can we help the others?


    Essentials of Forensic Psychological Assessment (Ackerman, Marc J., 1999)

    Forensic Evaluation of Juveniles (Thomas Grisso, 1998)


    THANK YOU! Marc J., 1999)


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