Adhd attention deficit hyperactivity disorder
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ADHD Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder. Kelly Quinn SPU Autumn 2009. Definition. A condition characterized by severe problems of inattention, hyperactivity, and/or impulsivity; often found in persons with learning disabilities. Hallahan, Kauffman, 2003. Prevalence.

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ADHD Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

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Adhd attention deficit hyperactivity disorder

ADHDAttention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

Kelly Quinn

SPU Autumn 2009


Definition

Definition

A condition characterized by severe problems of inattention, hyperactivity, and/or impulsivity; often found in persons with learning disabilities.

Hallahan, Kauffman, 2003


Prevalence

Prevalence

  • 3%-7% of school-aged children suffer from ADHD.

  • ADHD occurs more frequently in boys than girls by about 2.5:1.

Center for disease control and prevention. (2009, October 7). Retrieved November 8, 2009, from http://www.cdc.gov/ncbddd/ADHD/.


Causes

Causes

MythFact

  • Genetics

    • Studies indicate that if a child has ADHD, the chance of his/her sibling having it is 32% (Hallanhan, Kauffman, 2003).

  • Research does not support the popularly held views that ADHD is caused by:

  • Eating too much sugar

  • Watching too much television

  • Parenting or family chaos

  • Poverty


Causes1

Causes

Fact

  • Brain Functioning

    • While the majority of children with ADHD have not suffered brain injuries, certain types of brain injury can induce ADHD symptoms. ADHD most likely results from neurological dysfunction.

  • Toxic Substances

    • There is a correlation between drinking alcohol and smoking cigarettes while pregnant and ADHD in children. In addition to absorbing such toxic substances in utero, exposure to lead when young has also been linked to ADHD.

Copley, J. (2008, May 27). Why children develop attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Retrieved November 8, 2009, from http://addadhd.suite101.com/article.cfm/causes_of_adhd


Characteristics

Characteristics

People with ADHD often struggle with:

  • Behavioral Inhibition

  • Executive Functions

  • Persistent Goal-Directed Behavior

  • Adaptive Skills

  • Socializing with Peers

Hallahan, Kauffman, 2003


Article reviews

Article Reviews


Adhd attention deficit hyperactivity disorder

Emotional and Behavioral Difficulties and Impairments in Everyday Functioning Among Children with a History of ADHD.

  • The goal was to discover the spectrum of emotional and behavioral problems and areas of impairment among children with a history of ADHD.

  • Data was analyzed through a survey given to parents of children ages 4-17 with ADHD.

  • Method of research was a nationally representative sample given in 2003.

Strine, T., Lesesne, C., & McGuire, L. (2006). Emotional and behavioral difficulties and impairments in everyday functioning among children with a history of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder [Electronic version]. Preventing Chronic Disease, 3(2).


Findings

Findings

Conclusions

  • Children with ADHD do have a significant level of emotional/behavioral difficulties.

  • Parents, teachers, and health care providers need to be informed about signs and symptoms of ADHD.

  • Parents, teachers, and health care providers need to work toward appropriate treatment of ADHD.

Results

  • Children with ADHD were 6 times as likely as those without to have a high level of difficulties with emotional, conduct, and peer problems.

  • Children with ADHD were 9 times as likely to manifest a high level of impairment including interference with home life, friendships, classroom learning, and leisure activities.

Strine, T., Lesesne, C., & McGuire, L. (2006). Emotional and behavioral difficulties and impairments in everyday functioning among children with a history of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder [Electronic version]. Preventing Chronic Disease, 3(2).


Classroom seating for children with adhd therapy balls versus chairs

Classroom Seating for Children with ADHD: Therapy Balls Versus Chairs

  • Purpose was to investigate in-seat behavior and legibility using therapy balls and chairs.

  • Focused on three fourth grade students (1 female, 2 male) in a Language Arts classroom.

  • Method of alternating phases for three weeks. Each phase all students sat either in a regular chair or on a therapy ball – researchers focused on their subjects.

Shilling, D. L., Washington, K., Billingsley, F. F., & Deitz, J. (2003). Classroom seating for children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: Therapy balls versus chairs. The American Journal of Occupational Therapy, 57(5), 534-541.


Findings1

Findings

Results

  • While using a therapy ball the in-seat time increased dramatically as well as helping keep kids focused (sleeping in chairs was frequent).

  • Legible word productivity increased when sitting on a therapy ball.

  • Teacher felt students were better focused and produced better work when using the therapy balls.

Conclusions

  • The use of therapy balls may positively impact student in-seat behavior for students with ADHD.

  • The use of therapy balls may positively impact student legible word productivity for students with ADHD.

  • The use of therapy balls were a verbalized positive experience for students with and without ADHD.

Shilling, D. L., Washington, K., Billingsley, F. F., & Deitz, J. (2003). Classroom seating for children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: Therapy balls versus chairs. The American Journal of Occupational Therapy, 57(5), 534-541.


Gender differences in adhd

Gender Differences in ADHD

  • The purpose of this study was to evaluate gender differences in Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder.

  • This research was based on 18 other studies that met specific inclusion criteria.

  • Primarily looked at academic and intellectual functioning, comorbid behavior problems, social behavior, and family variables.

Carlson, C., Gaub, M. (1997). Gender differences in ADHD. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 36(8).


Findings2

Findings

Results

Gender differences not found in:

  • Impulsivity

  • Academic behavior

  • Fine motor skills

  • Social functioning

    Compared to ADHD boys, ADHD girls displayed:

  • Greater intellectual impairments

  • Lower levels of hyperactivity

  • Lower levels of inattention

  • Lower levels of peer aggression

Conclusions

  • This study was based off of other studies, so although the information is accurate, researchers recognize that further research needs to be conducted in examining gender differences among children with ADHD.

  • No specific recommendations, modifications or accommodations were mentioned in the article.

Carlson, C., Gaub, M. (1997). Gender differences in ADHD. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 36(8).


Recommendations

Recommendations


Adhd attention deficit hyperactivity disorder

  • Vary activities and teaching approach as to change the pace throughout the entire class period (direct instruction, group work, independent work, etc.).

  • Give students constant reminders about time for both short-term and long term class work/assignments.

  • Establish a safe, positive, stress-free learning environment.

  • Collaborate with special education teacher as well as other colleagues about what works/doesn’t work with specific students.


Adhd attention deficit hyperactivity disorder

  • Collaborate with parents as they know their child and what works.

  • Collaborate with former teachers, when possible, about what worked or didn’t work in the past years.

  • Discuss with the student individually to form a plan to help them be successful.

  • Consider varied seating placement

  • Give student a classroom job so they can be more involved in their own academics.

  • Be open to trying new methods (therapy ball for seating, allowing them to hold a nerf ball to squeeze, develop a place where they can quietly tap their pencil).


Inclusion

Inclusion

Cons of Inclusion:

Pros of Inclusion:

  • Students with ADHD can have successful social interactions with peers in a general education classroom.

  • With proper support a student with ADHD can find a great deal of academic success.

  • Placing a student with ADHD in a general education classroom will help overcome any stigmatism they may feel with a special education label.

  • Students with ADHD can be a disruption to their own learning environment and also their peers’.

  • There is often a lack of in-class support to help the general education teacher and a student with ADHD.

  • A student with ADHD could be over-stimulated and underserved in a regular education classroom.


Applications for my classroom

Applications for my Classroom


Adhd attention deficit hyperactivity disorder

  • I will consider a variety of seating accommodations

    • Low traffic areas will help with constant distractions.

    • Sitting up front could help with student focus.

    • Sitting off to the side allows student to stand without blocking students behind them.

    • Positive peer role models help student see examples of how to act appropriately.

  • I will keep an open line of communication between myself and the Special Education teacher, student, parents, school counselor and any other support services.

  • I will assist all my students in both verbal and written reminders to help them stay on task and be successful.

  • I will be flexible in my teaching style and open to various accommodations/modifications.


Works cited

Works Cited

American Psychiatric Association. Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders: DSM-IV-TR. Washington: American Psychiatric Association, 2000.

Archbold, K. Sleep Disorders and Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder in Children: A Missing Differential Diagnosis. (2006). Journal of the American Psychiatric Nurses Association, 12(4), 216 - 224.

Carlson, C., Gaub, M. (1997). Gender differences in ADHD. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 36(8).

Copley, J. (2008, May 27). Why children develop attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Retrieved November 8, 2009, from http://addadhd.suite101.com/article.cfm/causes_of_adhd

Center for disease control and prevention. (2009, October 7). Retrieved November 8, 2009, from http://www.cdc.gov/ncbddd/ADHD/.

Hallahan, D.P. (2003). Exceptional learners: Introduction to special education, 9th Ed. San Francisco: Allyn and Bacon.

Shilling, D. L., Washington, K., Billingsley, F. F., & Deitz, J. (2003). Classroom seating for children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: Therapy balls versus chairs. The American Journal of Occupational Therapy, 57(5), 534-541.

Strine, T., Lesesne, C., & McGuire, L. (2006). Emotional and behavioral difficulties and impairments in everyday functioning among children with a history of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder [Electronic version]. Preventing Chronic Disease, 3(2).

Voeller, K. (2004). Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). Journal of Child Neurology, 19(10), 798 - 814.


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