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Agenda. Scientific Inquiry: Invention and Test A Case History as an Example Basic Steps in Testing a Hypothesis The Role of Deduction & Induction Falsification. Agenda. Science, Society and Social Research Learning About the Social World Avoiding Errors Science and Social Science

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agenda
Agenda
  • Scientific Inquiry: Invention and Test
    • A Case History as an Example
    • Basic Steps in Testing a Hypothesis
    • The Role of Deduction & Induction
    • Falsification
agenda1
Agenda
  • Science, Society and Social Research
    • Learning About the Social World
    • Avoiding Errors
    • Science and Social Science
    • Alternative Research Orientations
agenda2
Agenda
  • Research Ethics and Philosophies
    • Historical Background
    • Ethical Principles
    • Philosophical Issues
carl gustav hempel 1905 1997
Carl Gustav Hempel (1905—1997)

Carl Gustav "Peter" Hempel (born January 8 , 1905 in Oranienburg , Germany died November 9 , 1997 in Princeton , New Jersey ) was a philosopher of science and a major figure in 20th-century logical empiricism . He is especially well-known for his articulation of the Deductive-nomological model of scientific explanation , which was considered the "standard model" of scientific explanation during the 1950s and 1960\'s.

origins of research questions and hypotheses
Origins of Research Questions and Hypotheses

Must be invented, imagined

  • Problematic or interesting phenomenon
  • Implications? (what difference does it make?)
  • How you might change or alter this condition? (what differences lead to it?)
scientific inquiry invention test1
Scientific Inquiry: Invention & Test
  • Semmelweis Case Study
    • 1844-1848 Vienna General Hospital
    • Childbed Fever
slide9

Hempel: “Scientific hypotheses and theories are not derived from observed facts, but invented in order to account for them.”

possible explanations
Possible Explanations
  • Epidemic Influences?
  • Overcrowding?
  • Diet?
  • Rough Examination?
  • Psychological?
  • Delivery Position?
  • Cadaver Infections?
  • Putrid Matter?
scientific inquiry invention test2
Scientific Inquiry: Invention & Test
  • Comparison with identifiable facts
  • Logic
  • But usually more complicated
    • Testing
    • If “H” Then “I”
scientific inquiry invention test3
Scientific Inquiry: Invention & Test
  • Deduction
  • Induction
  • Falsification
  • The Fallacy of Affirming the Consequent
  • Interation & Probability
learning about the social world
Learning About the Social World
  • Observing
  • Generalizing
  • Reasoning
  • Reevaluating
avoiding errors
Avoiding Errors
  • Observing
    • Selective Observation
    • Inaccurate Observation
  • Generalizing
    • Overgeneralization
  • Reasoning
    • Illogic
  • Reevaluating
    • Resistance to Change
science
Science
  • A set of logical, systematic, documented methods for investigating nature and natural processes; The knowledge produced by these investigations.
social science
Social Science
  • The use of scientific methods to investigate individuals, societies, and societal processes; The knowledge produced by these investigations
specific challenges of social science
Specific Challenges of Social Science
  • Our own biases in studying “ourselves”
  • The agency or lack thereof of “subjects”
  • Ethics
motives for social research
Motives for SocialResearch
  • Policy
  • Academic
  • Personal
  • Normative?
types of social research
Types of Social Research
  • Descriptive Research
  • Exploratory Research
  • Explanatory Research
  • Evaluation Research
alternative research orientations
Alternative Research Orientations
  • Quantitative vs Qualitative
  • Multimethods (Triangulation)
  • Basic vs Applied
research ethics and philosophies
Research Ethics and Philosophies
  • Historical Background
    • U.S. Public Health Service Syphilis Research
    • Nuremberg War Crime Trials
    • Milgram Experiments
research ethics and philosophies1
Research Ethics and Philosophies
  • Historical Background
    • National Commission for the Protection of Human Subjects of Biomedical and Behavioral Research (1979)
      • Respect for Persons
      • Beneficence
      • Justice
    • HHS & FDA Federal Policy for the Protection of Human Subjects (1991)
      • Institutional Review Boards
      • NIH Office for Protection from Research Risks
research ethics and philosophies2
Research Ethics and Philosophies
  • Historical Background
    • Professional Associations
      • E.g., ASA
      • Codes of Ethics
      • ICA http://www.icahdq.org/aboutica/ethics.asp
research ethics and philosophies3
Research Ethics and Philosophies
  • Ethical Principles (ASA)
    • Achieving Valid Results
    • Honesty and Openness
    • Protecting Research Participants
      • No Harm
      • Voluntary: Informed Consent
      • Researcher Disclosure
      • Anonymity or Confidentiality (unless waived)
      • Benefits Outweigh Risks

--The Uses of Research

research ethics and philosophies4
Research Ethics and Philosophies
  • Philosophical Issues
    • Positivism & Post-positivism
      • Inter-subjective Agreement
research ethics and philosophies5
Research Ethics and Philosophies
  • Philosophical Issues
    • Positivist Research Guidelines
      • Test ideas without too much personal investment in the outcome
      • Plan & carry out the investigation systematically
      • Document & disclose
      • Clarify assumptions
      • Specify meanings of all terms
      • Maintain skepticism of current knowledge
      • Replicate and build social theory
      • Search for regularities & patterns
research ethics and philosophies6
Research Ethics and Philosophies
  • Philosophical Issues
    • Interpretivism & Constructivism
      • The Hermeneutic Circle
      • Guidelines
        • Identify stakeholders and solicit their claims, concerns and issues
        • Introduce these claims to other stakeholders and elicit reactions
        • Focus on areas of disagreement among stakeholder interpretation
        • Negotiate with stakeholders to reach consensus on meaning
core distinctions and processes
Core Distinctions and Processes
  • The interplay of theory and observation
  • The interplay of inductive and deductive logical processes
  • Quantitative vs Qualitative Research
  • Empirical vs Quantitative Research
  • Basic vs Applied Research
  • Ordered steps including invention, investigation, and revision
for thursday
For Thursday

The Process and Problems of Social Reseach

  • Stinchcombe: Constructing Social Theories
  • Schutt: Chapter 2; section of Chapter 4
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