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Agenda. Scientific Inquiry: Invention and Test A Case History as an Example Basic Steps in Testing a Hypothesis The Role of Deduction & Induction Falsification. Agenda. Science, Society and Social Research Learning About the Social World Avoiding Errors Science and Social Science

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Agenda

Agenda

  • Scientific Inquiry: Invention and Test

    • A Case History as an Example

    • Basic Steps in Testing a Hypothesis

    • The Role of Deduction & Induction

    • Falsification


Agenda1

Agenda

  • Science, Society and Social Research

    • Learning About the Social World

    • Avoiding Errors

    • Science and Social Science

    • Alternative Research Orientations


Agenda2

Agenda

  • Research Ethics and Philosophies

    • Historical Background

    • Ethical Principles

    • Philosophical Issues


Scientific inquiry invention test

Scientific Inquiry: Invention & Test


Carl g hempel

Carl G. Hempel


Carl gustav hempel 1905 1997

Carl Gustav Hempel (1905—1997)

Carl Gustav "Peter" Hempel (born January 8 , 1905 in Oranienburg , Germany died November 9 , 1997 in Princeton , New Jersey ) was a philosopher of science and a major figure in 20th-century logical empiricism . He is especially well-known for his articulation of the Deductive-nomological model of scientific explanation , which was considered the "standard model" of scientific explanation during the 1950s and 1960's.


Origins of research questions and hypotheses

Origins of Research Questions and Hypotheses

Must be invented, imagined

  • Problematic or interesting phenomenon

  • Implications? (what difference does it make?)

  • How you might change or alter this condition? (what differences lead to it?)


Scientific inquiry invention test1

Scientific Inquiry: Invention & Test

  • Semmelweis Case Study

    • 1844-1848 Vienna General Hospital

    • Childbed Fever


Agenda 5232053

Hempel: “Scientific hypotheses and theories are not derived from observed facts, but invented in order to account for them.”


Possible explanations

Possible Explanations

  • Epidemic Influences?

  • Overcrowding?

  • Diet?

  • Rough Examination?

  • Psychological?

  • Delivery Position?

  • Cadaver Infections?

  • Putrid Matter?


Scientific inquiry invention test2

Scientific Inquiry: Invention & Test

  • Comparison with identifiable facts

  • Logic

  • But usually more complicated

    • Testing

    • If “H” Then “I”


Scientific inquiry invention test3

Scientific Inquiry: Invention & Test

  • Deduction

  • Induction

  • Falsification

  • The Fallacy of Affirming the Consequent

  • Interation & Probability


Learning about the social world

Learning About the Social World

  • Observing

  • Generalizing

  • Reasoning

  • Reevaluating


Avoiding errors

Avoiding Errors

  • Observing

    • Selective Observation

    • Inaccurate Observation

  • Generalizing

    • Overgeneralization

  • Reasoning

    • Illogic

  • Reevaluating

    • Resistance to Change


Science

Science

  • A set of logical, systematic, documented methods for investigating nature and natural processes; The knowledge produced by these investigations.


Social science

Social Science

  • The use of scientific methods to investigate individuals, societies, and societal processes; The knowledge produced by these investigations


Specific challenges of social science

Specific Challenges of Social Science

  • Our own biases in studying “ourselves”

  • The agency or lack thereof of “subjects”

  • Ethics


Motives for social research

Motives for SocialResearch

  • Policy

  • Academic

  • Personal

  • Normative?


Types of social research

Types of Social Research

  • Descriptive Research

  • Exploratory Research

  • Explanatory Research

  • Evaluation Research


Alternative research orientations

Alternative Research Orientations

  • Quantitative vs Qualitative

  • Multimethods (Triangulation)

  • Basic vs Applied


Research ethics and philosophies

Research Ethics and Philosophies

  • Historical Background

    • U.S. Public Health Service Syphilis Research

    • Nuremberg War Crime Trials

    • Milgram Experiments


Research ethics and philosophies1

Research Ethics and Philosophies

  • Historical Background

    • National Commission for the Protection of Human Subjects of Biomedical and Behavioral Research (1979)

      • Respect for Persons

      • Beneficence

      • Justice

    • HHS & FDA Federal Policy for the Protection of Human Subjects (1991)

      • Institutional Review Boards

      • NIH Office for Protection from Research Risks


Research ethics and philosophies2

Research Ethics and Philosophies

  • Historical Background

    • Professional Associations

      • E.g., ASA

      • Codes of Ethics

      • ICA http://www.icahdq.org/aboutica/ethics.asp


Research ethics and philosophies3

Research Ethics and Philosophies

  • Ethical Principles (ASA)

    • Achieving Valid Results

    • Honesty and Openness

    • Protecting Research Participants

      • No Harm

      • Voluntary: Informed Consent

      • Researcher Disclosure

      • Anonymity or Confidentiality (unless waived)

      • Benefits Outweigh Risks

        --The Uses of Research


Research ethics and philosophies4

Research Ethics and Philosophies

  • Philosophical Issues

    • Positivism & Post-positivism

      • Inter-subjective Agreement


Research ethics and philosophies5

Research Ethics and Philosophies

  • Philosophical Issues

    • Positivist Research Guidelines

      • Test ideas without too much personal investment in the outcome

      • Plan & carry out the investigation systematically

      • Document & disclose

      • Clarify assumptions

      • Specify meanings of all terms

      • Maintain skepticism of current knowledge

      • Replicate and build social theory

      • Search for regularities & patterns


Research ethics and philosophies6

Research Ethics and Philosophies

  • Philosophical Issues

    • Interpretivism & Constructivism

      • The Hermeneutic Circle

      • Guidelines

        • Identify stakeholders and solicit their claims, concerns and issues

        • Introduce these claims to other stakeholders and elicit reactions

        • Focus on areas of disagreement among stakeholder interpretation

        • Negotiate with stakeholders to reach consensus on meaning


Core distinctions and processes

Core Distinctions and Processes

  • The interplay of theory and observation

  • The interplay of inductive and deductive logical processes

  • Quantitative vs Qualitative Research

  • Empirical vs Quantitative Research

  • Basic vs Applied Research

  • Ordered steps including invention, investigation, and revision


For thursday

For Thursday

The Process and Problems of Social Reseach

  • Stinchcombe: Constructing Social Theories

  • Schutt: Chapter 2; section of Chapter 4


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