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The Age of Early European Explorations & Conquests. Examining an Essential Question:. “With the dawn of the 16 th century, there came together in Europe both the motivation and the means to explore and colonize territory across the seas.”

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The Age of Early

European Explorations

& Conquests


Examining an essential question
Examining an Essential Question:

  • “With the dawn of the 16th century, there came together in Europe both the motivation and the means to explore and colonize territory across the seas.”

  • Assess the validity of this statement with respect to (a) religion (b) trade (c) technology.


Religious conflict
Religious Conflict

  • Later years of Renaissance: intense religious zeal and conflict

  • A. Catholic victory in Spain.

  • B. Protestant revolt in northern Europe.


Expanding trade
Expanding Trade

  • A. Africa, India, China

  • B. The significance of 1453

  • C. The role of Prince Henry the Navigator


Technology
Technology

  • A. Increase in scientific knowledge and technological change

  • B. Improvements of others’ inventions:

  • 1. gunpowder

  • 2. sailing compass

  • C. Shipbuilding, mapmaking

  • D. Printing press



New Maritime Technologies

Better Maps [Portulan]

Hartman Astrolabe(1532)

Mariner’s Compass

Sextant



Christofo Colon [1451-1506]






The First Spanish Conquests: World:The Aztecs

vs.

Fernando Cortez

Montezuma II



The First Spanish Conquests: World: The Incas

vs.

Francisco Pizarro

Atahualpa


Slaves Working in a World:Brazilian Sugar Mill




The Slave Trade World:

  • Existed in Africa before the coming of the Europeans.

  • Portuguese replaced European slaves with Africans.

    • Sugar cane & sugar plantations.

    • First boatload of African slaves brought by the Spanish in 1518.

    • 275,000 enslaved Africans exportedto other countries.

  • Between 16c & 19c, about 10 million Africans shipped to the Americas.


Slave Ship World:

“Middle Passage”



African Captives World:Thrown Overboard

Sharks followed the slave ships!



The Colonial Class System World:

Peninsulares

Creoles

Mestizos

Mulattos

Native Indians

Black Slaves


Administration of the Spanish Empire in the New World World:

  • Encomiendaor forced labor.

  • Council of the Indies.

    • Viceroy.

    • New Spain and Peru.

  • Papal agreement.


The Influence of the Colonial Catholic Church World:

Our Lady of Guadalupe

Guadalajara Cathedral

Spanish Mission


The Treaty of World:Tordesillas, 1494 & The Pope’s Line of Demarcation



Impact of european exploration
Impact of European Exploration World:

Native populations ravaged by disease.

Influx of gold, and especially silver, into Europe created an inflationary economic climate.[“Price Revolution”]

New products introduced across the continents [“Columbian Exchange”].

Deepened colonial rivalries.


New World:Patterns of World Trade


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