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UNIT 4: THE GREEKS. Matthew Lewis ED 639 December 4, 2002. Introduction.

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Unit 4 the greeks l.jpg

UNIT 4: THE GREEKS

Matthew Lewis

ED 639

December 4, 2002


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Introduction

Ancient Greek civilization has contributed many of the ideas and activities that we use today. Their religion, government, and even their sporting events are still affecting us today. The Greeks set the foundation for the western society that we live in.

The Greeks beginning ideas on Democracy set the basis for are own government. The great Greek philosophers’ ideas are still followed today. Many of the ideas about human interaction and development originated with the Greeks.


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The Greek civilization lasted nearly 2,700 years from their early beginnings to their conquest by Rome. Starting with the early civilizations of the Minoans and Mycanaeans to the fall of Alexander’s Empire Greek civilization impacted the world.

Knowing this, it is important for a Seventh Grade Ancient History teacher to teach about Ancient Greece so that the students understand the importance and impact of this great society. A variety of activities and means of teaching will be used in order for the students to stay attentive and enthusiastic about the unit.


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Objectives

When asked the students will be able to:

Beginnings

  • Describe what life was like for the Minoans.

  • Discuss how geography influenced the early people who lived on Crete and the Balkan Peninsula.

  • Summarize what life was like for the Mycenaeans.

  • Explain how the Dark Age affected the Aegean world.


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Objectives cont…

The City-States

  • Explain why the polis was the geographic and political center of Greek life.

  • Describe what life was like in the city-states of Sparta and Athens.

  • Explain the different types of government that evolved in Athens.

  • Summarize how the Persian Wars affected Greece.

  • Discuss how Athens controlled the other city-states.

  • Explain why Athens and the other city-states declined.


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Objectives cont…

Cultural Contributions

  • Describe how the Greeks honored their gods and goddesses.

  • Summarize what contributions were made in athletics and the arts during the Golden Age of Greek culture.

  • Discuss how Greek thinkers influenced the development of western civilization.


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Objectives cont…

The Hellenistic Period

  • Summarize how the spread of Greek culture influenced people from Gibraltar to India.

  • Explain how Philip II of Macedonia gained control of Greece.

  • Discuss how Alexander attempted to bring unity to his empire.

  • Describe how Alexander’s empire changed after his death.


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Content

This unit will take roughly eight weeks to complete. The unit is broken into four chapters: Beginnings, The City-State, Cultural Contributions, and The Hellenistic Period. The first chapter will be allotted approximately ten class periods, the second ten class periods, the third ten class periods, and the last ten class periods. Flexibility will be necessary with the various activities that are planned.

Textbook: Greenblatt M., Lemmo P. Human Heritage: A World History. Columbus: Glencoe, McGraw-Hill, 1995. Chapters 9, 10, 11, 12.


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Beginnings

  • The Minoans:

    • Section one covers the development of the Minoan civilization. The geography of the island of Crete is covered along with their development of ships. Also covered are the people themselves; what they looked liked and what they did. Their cities and palaces, chiefly the Palace of Knosssos, are covered. Rulers and religion are also discussed in this section and finally the fall of the Minoans. Key terms covered are: bull leaping, labyrinth, parchment, and shrines.


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Beginnings cont…

  • The Mycenaeans:

    • Section two covers the development of the Mycenaean civilization. Their fortress-palaces are discussed including the layout. The daily life and its setup is also covered. The text also relates the connection between traders and pirates with the Mycenaeans. The relationship between Minoa and Mycenae is looked at as well. The Trojan War is in section two also. It is discussed from Homer’s Iliad. Finally the “Dark Age” of the Aegean world is discussed. The causes and results are talked about by the authors. Key terms covered are: megaron, tenants, and civil wars.


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Concepts

Crete

Minoans

Mycenaeans

Geography

Bull leaping

Palace of Knossos

Labyrinth

Parchment

Shrines

Priest-kings

Theseus and the Minotaur

Fortress-palaces

Megaron

Tenants

Traders and Pirates

Trojan War

The Iliad

Civil wars

“Dark Age”

Beginnings cont…


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The City-States

  • The Polis

    • Section one covers the polis or city-state. The layout of the polis is covered first along with its government. What a citizen is is also covered. Sparta and Athens are also introduced in this section. Key terms covered are: polis, agora, and acropolis.


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The City-States cont…

  • Sparta

    • Section two covers the city-state of Sparta. The location is first covered along with the government and leaders. The class structure was important to Sparta and is thoroughly covered. The way of life for the Spartans is also looked at. The way men and women were treated is important to know and understand. The Spartans thoughts on new ideas are also explained. Key terms covered are: aristocrats, helots, and perioeci.


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The City-States cont…

  • Athens

    • Section three covers the city-state of Athens. The geography and location is covered first. Next the development of a democratic constitution is covered. This is important for the students to completely know, because four types of government are discussed. The various councils and rulers are looked at in detail. The Persian Wars are also covered in this section. Lastly the formation of the Delian League and the Athenian Empire is discussed along with the decline of the Empire. The Peloponnesian war is talked about with the decline of the Athenian Empire. Key terms covered are: oligarchy, constitution, democratic, triremes, defensive league, and mercenaries.


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The City-States cont…

  • Decline of the City-States

    • The final section covers the decline of the Greek city-states. In this section the lose of the traditional sense of community is talked about, along with the bitterness that developed between the upper and lower classes. The chapter ends with the introduction of Philip II of Macedonia.


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Concepts

The polis or city-state

Acropolis

Agora

Citizenship

Sparta

Athens

Aristocrats

Ephors

Helots

Perioeci

Spartan way of life

Monarchy

Oligarchy

Tyranny

Democratic constitution

Solon

Cleisthenes

Assembly

Council of Five Hundred

Persian War

Battle of Marathon

Triremes

Defensive league

Delian league

Athenian Empire

Pericles

Mercenaries

Peloponnesian War

Thebes

The City-States cont…


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Cultural Contributions

  • Religious Practices

    • Section one covers religious practices and how they contributed to western development.The gods and goddesses of Mount Olympus are discussed. The Olympic games are covered and why they were held. Different events for the games are discussed. Also the Greek theater is in this section. The Greek tragedy and comedy are talked about in the text. How the plays were held is covered also. Key terms covered are: oracles, pancratium, and pentathlon.


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Cultural Contributions cont…

  • Science

    • Section two covers the scientific contributions made by ancient Greece. First covered is Socrates and his Socratic method. Plato is also discussed. His academy and political science writings appear in the text, along with his Dialogues. Aristotle is next to be discussed. His classification method and contributions to the scientific method are covered. Aristotle’s syllogism is in this section. Briefly a few other scientists are covered, like Thales and Hippocrates. Key terms covered are: philosophia, Socratic method, political science, scientific method, hypothesis, and syllogism.


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Concepts

Golden Age

Mount Olympus

Olympic Games

Herodotus

Dionysus

Aeschylus

Sophocles

Euripides

Aristophanes

Oracles

Pancratium

Pentathlon

Socrates

Plato

The Republic

The Dialogues

Aristotle

Thales of Miletus

Hippocrates

Hippocratic Oath

Philosophia

Socratic method

Political science

Scientific method

Hypothesis

Syllogism

Cultural Contributions cont…


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Hellenistic Period

  • Philip II of Macedonia

    • Section one covers Philip II of Macedonia. His life as a youth and how he was held hostage in Thebes begins the section. Philip’s beliefs about Greek life and why he wanted to conquer Greece are talked about. The development of his army and plan are given in detail. How Demosthenes spoke out about Philip II is also discussed in the text. Key terms covered are: hostage, phalanx, alliances, and orator.


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Hellenistic Period cont…

  • Alexander the Great

    • Section two covers the life and achievements of Alexander the Great, son of Philip II of Macedonia. Alexander was a feared general who never lost a battle. He covered from the Nile to the Indus rivers. Life under his empire is discussed along with the founding of Alexandria. The section and chapter ends with the end of the empire and what happened after Alexander’s death. Key terms covered are: barbaroi, factories, emigrated.


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Concepts

Hellenistic Age

Philip II

Macedonia

Demosthenes

Hostage

Phalanx

Alliances

Orator

Alexander the Great

Alexandria

Antigonus

Ptolemy

Seleucus

Barbaroi

Factories

Emigrated

Hellenistic Period cont…


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ACTIVITIESBeginnings

  • Introduction and Developmental

    • Day 1

      Construct a graphic organizer on the chalkboard using Greece as the hub. The spokes will be titled : Geography, Culture, Important People, Lasting Contributions. Have the students call out ideas as you write down the appropriate responses. This will get them thinking about ancient Greece. Have students read section one of chapter nine in class. Stop and discuss the topics with the students. Hand out chapter 9 study guide.

      Assignment: Chapter 9 Geography and Map Activity

      Power Point Presentation of Palace of Knossos, due at end of chapter.


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  • Day 2

    • First review what was read and discussed from day one. Have the students read section two in class. Stop and discuss the topics with the students. Use video disc to help enrich chapter nine material.

    • Assignment: Chapter 9 Chart and Graph Skill Activity


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  • Day 3

    • Do cooperative learning activity for Chapter 9.

  • Day 4

    • Give students time to work on PP presentation.

  • Day 5

    • Give students time to work on PP presentation.


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  • Culminating

  • Day 6

    • Student presentations

  • Day 7

    • Student presentations

  • Day 8

    • Student presentations


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  • Day 9

    • Practice test for chapter 9 test. Questions will be from study guide given to students at beginning of chapter.

  • Day 10

    • Give chapter 9 test


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The City-State

  • Introduction and Developmental

  • Day 1

    • Review chapter 9 test and begin chapter 10 with vocabulary and guided reading activity. Hand out chapter 10 study guide.

  • Day 2

    • Have the students read section 1 in class. Stop and discuss the material with the students.


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  • Day 3

    • Quickly review previous day’s reading. Have students read section 2 in class. Stop and discuss the material with the students.

      • Assignment: Geography and Map activity

  • Day 4

    • Quickly review previous day’s reading. Have students read section 3 in class. Stop and discuss the material with the students.


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  • Day 5

    • Quickly review previous day’s reading. Have students read section 4 in class. Stop and discuss the material with the students.

      • Assignment: Chart and Graph Skills Activity


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  • Culminating

  • Day 6

    • Begin History Alive activity. The students will create a journal of a tour of Athens. The students will have five days to complete the assignment.

  • Day 7 and 8

    • History Alive activity

      • Assignment finish journal at home


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  • Day 9

    • Give practice test. Questions will be from study guide sheet.

  • Day 10

    • Give chapter 10 test


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Cultural Contributions

  • Introduction and Developmental

  • Day 1

    • Students will turn in History Alive assignment. Review chapter 10 test. Handout chapter 11 study guide.

  • Day 2

    • Have students read section 1 in class. Stop and discuss the material with the students.

      • Assignment: Geography and Map Activity


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  • Day 3

    • Quickly review previous day’s reading. Have students read section 2 in class. Stop and discuss the material with the students.

  • Day 4

    • In class do the Chart and Graph activity. Show video Ancient Civilizations: Legacies.


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  • Culminating

  • Day 5

    • Begin Olympics activity with the students. The first two days will be for the students to create their city-state flag and pledge. The students will also decide on how to dress for the opening ceremonies.

  • Day 6

    • Continue Olympics preparation


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  • Day 7

    • Have opening ceremonies and begin events.

  • Day 8

    • Finish events and have closing ceremonies

  • Day 9

    • Have practice test for chapter 11. Questions will be from study guide.


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  • Day 10

    • Give chapter 11 test.


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Hellenistic Period

  • Introduction and Developmental

  • Day 1

    • Go over chapter 11 test with students. Do vocabulary and guided reading activity in class.

  • Day 2

    • Have the students read section 1 in class. Stop and discuss the material with the students.


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  • Day 3

    • Activity done in pairs for the students. Students will create a dialogue for an interview between Philip II and a news reporter. Have them focus on Philip’s campaign to unify Greece and spread Greek culture.

  • Day 4

    • Students will present their written dialogues


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  • Day 5

    • Quickly review section 1. Have students read section 2 in class. Stop and discuss the material with the students

      • Assignment: Geography and Map activity

  • Culminating

  • Day 6

    • Show video Alexander the Great & the Hellenistic Age.


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  • Day 7

    • Do chapter 12 cooperative learning activity

  • Day 8

    • Show video disc to enhance chapter 12 material

  • Day 9

    • Give practice test for chapter 12. Questions will come from study guide.


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  • Day 10

    • Give chapter 12 test.


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Evaluation

  • Multiple choice questions

    • 1. What civilizations combined to form the Greek civilization?

      • A. the Minoans

      • B. the Mycenaeans

      • C. the Hammurabians

      • D. the Minoans and Mycenaeans


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  • 2. What did the Mycenaens build instead of cities?

    • A. fortress-palaces

    • B. towns

    • C. villages

    • D. castles

  • 3. What did the citizens of a polis consider most important?

    • A. farming

    • B. trade

    • C. the good of the polis

    • D. the military


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  • 4. In what were Greek scientists most interested?

    • A. themselves

    • B. making money

    • C. curing disease

    • D. adding to their knowledge

  • 5. What happened to the Greek city-states by 146 B.C.?

    • A. they were destroyed by earthquakes

    • B. most came under Roman control

    • C. they gained independence

    • D. they were conquered by the Chinese


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  • Objective questions

    • 1. Explain the different types of government that evolved in Athens.

    • 2. Describe what life was like for the Minoans


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  • Essay questions

    • 1. Briefly explain how the Dark Age affected the Aegean world.

    • 2. Briefly explain how Philip II of Macedonia gained control of Greece.


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Instructional Resources

  • Teacher references

    • Cotterell, Arthur. The Minoan World. Charles Scribner’s Sons, 1979.

      • Surveys Minoan Civilization.

    • Grant, Michael. The Rise of the Greeks. Scribner’s. 1988.

      • An examination of Greek civilization from the collapse of Mycenae to the Peloponnesian War.


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  • Grant Michael. From Alexander to Cleopatra: The Hellenistic World. Weidenfielf and Nicholson, 1982.

    • Focuses on all aspects of the Hellenistic Age.

  • Grant, Michail. The Classical Greeks. Scribner, 1989.

    • Connects culture with historical events. Spans art, architecture, philosophy, and drama.


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  • Student references

    • Easterling, P.E. and B. M. W. Knox, eds. The Cambridge History of Classical Literature, Vol. 1, Greek Literature. Cambridge, 1985.

      • Collection of ancient Greek literature

    • Harris, Nathaniel. Alexander the Great and the Greeks. Bookwright Press, 1986

      • Details about the contributions Alexander made to the Greeks

    • Renault, Mary. The Persian Boy. Bantam, 1988.

      • The second of three novels about Alexander the Great.


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  • Boyer, Sophia A., and Winifred Lubell. Gifts from the Greeks, Alpha to Omega. Rand McNally, 1970.

    • Descriptions of areas of Greek life illustrated with drawings of Greek art.

  • D’Aulaire, Ingri and Edgar. Book of Greek Myths. Doubleday, 1962.

    • Collection of Greek myths.

  • Burrell, Roy. The Greeks: Rebuilding the Past Series. Oxford University Press, 1990.


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  • Hamilton, Edith. The Greek Way. Norton, 1983.

    • Story of the Greek spirit and mind told by great writers.

  • Evslin, Bernard. Heroes and Monsters of Greek Myth. Scholastic, 1988.

    • Retells many Greek myths.

  • Renault, Mary. The King Must Die. Random House, 1988.

    • Retells the legend of Theseus’s struggle with the Minotaur.


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Media References

  • Videodisc

    • Videodisc resources that accompany the textbook. One for each chapter; 9-12.

  • Audiocassettes

    • Audiocassettes that accompany the textbook. One for each chapter; 9-12.

  • Transparencies

    • Teaching transparencies and activities for each chapter; 9-12.


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  • Atlas

    • Rand McNally atlases for the students to use in class with certain assignments.

  • Computers

    • Laptop computers will be used by the students for preparation of their PowerPoint presentations on the Palace of Knossos.

  • Posters and Pictures

    • Posters and pictures that show the various gods, goddesses, and important figures in Greek mythology and history.


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  • CD-Rom

    • PowerPoint program by Microsoft will be needed for project.

    • The Great World History Knowledge Race: Ancient/Medieval.

      • A game format focusing mainly on Greece, Rome, and the Middle Ages

  • Videocassette

    • Aegean Age

      • Describes Minoan and Mycenaean civilizations

    • Ancient Civilization: The End is the Beginning

      • Gives possible explanations for the decline of early civilizations including the Minoans and the Mycenaeans.


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  • The Fall of Troy

    • Reveals the background and meaning of the Trojan War

  • The Greeks

    • Traces Greek culture and history from the early Aegean civilizations to the conquests of Alexander the Great.

  • Ancient Civilization: Safekeeping

    • Explains features of civilization that helped make people feel secure, with a focus on Greek civilization

  • Athens: Birthplace for Democracy

    • Stresses Athens’ historical and cultural importance.


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  • Our Heritage from Ancient Greece

    • A brief history of ancient Greece and an overview of its culture.

  • Ancient Civilizations: Legacies

    • Describes innovations of early civilizations with an emphasis on the Greeks and Romans

  • The Greek Beginning

    • Introduction to Greek literature, politics, and philosophy from 1300 to 323 B.C.

  • Alexander the Great & the Hellenistic Age

    • Focuses on the life of Alexander the Great


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